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Элементы предложения можно и нужно заменять на более короткие. При этом используются:

(1). Местоимения:

a) Личные местоимения: I we he, she, it, they… (а также me, us, her и myself, himself, themselves и т.п.): Jane copies the clothes she sees in the movies.
b) Неопределенные местоимения: one(s), some, any, either, few, several… Can you give me a little oil? I need some [=some oil].
c) местоимение one: The clean towels are in the drawer - if you need one [= a clean towel].
d) Безличное местоимение it и указательные this, that these, those: If you don't study for the examination, you'll regret it [=you'll regret not studying for the examination]. She's expecting twins. -- How do you know that?
e) the same: Monday was beautiful, and Tuesday was the same.

(2). Наречия then, here, there.

Between London and Oxford there is a famous inn called the George and Dragon. Here we stopped for lunch.
If you look in the top drawer, you'll probably find it there.
One morning the captain invited us to the bridge. He told us then about his secret orders.

that/it, like that и in that way/that way:

They sat right in the front of the stage. There/that/it was where the noise was greatest.
She plays the piano with great concentration and with great energy. I'm afraid she doesn't study like that. Always be frank and open to your colleagues. That way you'll win their trust and confidence.

(3). So

a) добавление к высказыванию или согласие в коротких ответах:

I'm hungry. - So am I.
You've made a mistake here. - Oh, so I have. Thank you.

b) Замена целому клозу:

Oxford is likely to win the next boat race. All my friends say so. [= . . . that Oxford will win the next boat race]

(4). Do: You look just as bad as he does.

Сочетания: do so, do it, do that, do the same:

She might sing tonight, but I don't think she will do so.
I wanted to jump, but I just couldn't do it.
Rover is scratching the door. - Yes, he always does it/does that when he wants attention.