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Частотный словарь (2-я тысяча)

■ abandon [ə'bændən], abandoned, abandonment {bandon, control}
■ absent ['æbsənt], absence, absentee, absenteeism {esse, to be}
surd, absurd [əb'sɜ:rd, əb'zɜ:rd], absurdity [ə 'sɜ:rdɪti, əb'zɜ:rdɪti ] {surdus, deaf}
■ accent ['ækˌsent], accentuate [æk'senʧu:ˌeɪt], accentuation, accented/unaccented {cantus, song}
■ accept [æk'sept, əkˈsept], accepted/unaccepted, acceptable/ unacceptable, acceptance {capere, to take}
■ access ['ækses], accessible/ inaccessible, accessibility/ inaccessibility, accession [æk'seʃən] , accessory {cēdere, to come}
■ accident ['æksɪdənt, 'æksɪˌdent], accidental, accidentally {cadere, to fall}
■ accord [ə'kɔ:rd], accordance, according, accordingly, according as, according to {cord, heart}
■ accurate ['ækjərɪt]/inaccurate, accuracy ['ækjərəsi]/inaccuracy {cure, curator}
■ accuse [ə'kju:z] , accused, accusation [ˌækju:'zeɪʃən], accuser, accusative {causa, lawsuit}
■ ache [eɪk], aching
■ achieve [ə'ʧi:v], achievment (chief) {chief}
■ acquaint [ə'kweɪnt] , acquaintance, acquainted/unacquainted {cognōscere, to learn}
■ admire [æd'maɪr], admirer, admirable, admiration [ˌædmə'reɪʃən] {mīrāri, to wonder}
■ admit [æd'mɪt], admittedly, admittance, admission, admissible/ inadmissible, admissibility {mittere, to send}
■ adult [ə'dʌlt, 'ædʌlt], adulthood {alēscere, to grow}
■ advance [æd'væns], advanced, advantage [æd'væntɪʤ]/disadvantage, advantageous [ˌædvæn'teɪʤəs, ˌædvən'teɪʤəs]/disadvantageous {ante, before}
■ advertise ['ædvərˌtaɪz], advertisement /ad/advert, advertent/ inadvertent, advertence/ inadvertence, advertently/inadvertently {vertere, to turn}
■ affair {faire, to do}
■ affect 1 /disaffect, affecting/disaffectin, affection/disaffection, affectionate, affectionately, affected/unaffected {facere, to do}; affect 2, affected, affectation {facere, to do}

■ aggress, aggressive [ə'gresɪv], aggression [ə'greʃən]/non-agression, aggressor {gradī, to go}
■ ah/ahh/ahhh [ɑː]
■ aid [eɪd], aided/unaided, aide
■ alarm [əˈlɑːm], alarming, alarmist {arm}
■ alcohol ['ælkəˌhɔ:l, 'ælkəˌhɒl] , alcoholic [ˌælkə'hɔ:lɪk, ælkə'hɒlɪk] /non-alcoholic
■ alley ['æli]
■ alter [ˈɔːltə], alterable, alternate, alternately, alteration, alternating, altered/unaltered, alternative, alternation; altercate, altercation
■ ambition [æm'bɪʃən], ambitious/unambitious [æm'bɪʃəs] {ambi- + īre, to go}
■ amount/ paramount/ tantamount mount {Latin Mmōns, mountain}
■ angel ['eɪnʤəl] / archangel ['ɑ:rkˌeɪnʤəl], angelic
■ angle 1 ['æŋgəl]/rectangle/ triangle, angular/ equiangular {Old Latin angulus corner} angle 2, angler, angling {Middle English anglen, fishhook} ['rekˌtæŋgəl] ['traɪˌæŋgəl] ['æŋgjələr]
■ announce, announcement, announcer, annunciation/ denunciation/pronunciation/mispronunciation; denounce, denouncement, denouncer; pronounce / mispronounce, unpronounceable, pronounced, pronouncement [əˈnaʊns] {nuntius, messenger}
■ annoy ['ənɔɪ], annoying, annoyance {odium, hatred}
■ ant [ænt]
■ anxious ['æŋkʃəs, 'æŋʃəs], anxiously, anxiety [æŋ'zaɪɪti]
■ apologize [ə'poʊləˌʤaɪz], apologetic [əˌpoʊlə'ʤetɪk], apologetically, apology ['əpɒləʤi:], apologist {logos, speech}
■ appeal [ə'pi:l], appellation {pellere, to push, drive}
■ appetite ['æpɪˌtaɪt], appetizer, appetizing/ unappetizing, appetitive ['æpɪˌtaɪtɪv, ə'petɪtɪv] {petere, to seek}
■ applaud [ə'plɔ:d] , applause {plaudere, to clap}
■ apply [ə'plaɪ]/misapply, appliance [ə'plaɪəns], applicable/inapplicable ['æplɪkəbəl, ə'plɪkəbəl], applicability/inapplicability, applicant, application, appliqué {plicāre, to fold together}
■ appoint appointment appointee {point}
■ appreciate [ə'pri:ʃi:ˌeɪt], unappreciated, appreciative [ə'pri:ʃətɪv, ə'pri:ʃˌi:eɪtɪv]/ unappreciative, appreciable [ə'pri:ʃəbəl], appreciation {pretium, price}
■ approach [ə'proʊʧ], approaching, approach able/ unapproachable {propius, nearer}
■ area ['eəri:ə]
■ arrest [ə'rest]
■ article ['ɑ:rtɪkəl] , articulate [adj.ɑ:r'tɪkjəlɪt] v. ɑ:r'tɪkjəˌleɪt]/ inarticulate, articulateness/inarticulateness, articulated/ unarticulated, articulation
■ ash 1 {Old Norse askr ; mountain ash} ash 2, ashen {Old High German aska, dry}
■ ass 1, asinine, asininity; [Latin asinus; ass] ass 2/arse/ [Old English ærs; see arse]
■ assist [ə'sɪst], assistance, assistant {sistere, to stand}
■ assume [ə'su:m, əˈsjuːm], assumed, assumption [əˈsʌmpʃən], unassuming {sūmere, to take}
■ attach [ə'tæʧ] , attachment, attached/unattached (detach)
■ attack [ə'tæk]/counter-attack, attacker (tack)
■ attempt [ə'tempt] {temptāre, to test} {tempt}
■ attend [ə'tend], unattended, attendant, attendance/ non-attendance, attention/ inattention, attentive/inattentive (tend) [ə'tenʃən] {tend}
■ attitude [ˈætɪˌtjuːd]/aptitude
■ attract [ə'trækt], attractive/ unattractive, attractiveness, attraction / counter-attraction {trahere, pull; contract, abstract, contract, distract, retract}
■ author ['ɔ:θər]/ co-author, authorship, authoritative [ə'θɔ:rɪˌteɪtɪv, ə'θɒrɪˌteɪtɪv, ɔ:'θɔ:rɪˌteɪtɪv, ɔ:'θɒrɪˌteɪtɪv], authority [ə'θɔ:rɪti, ə'θɒrɪti, ɔ:'θɔ:rɪti, ɔ:'θɒrɪti], authoritarian [əˌθɔ:rɪ'teəri:ən, əˌθɒrɪ'teəri:ən, ɔ:ˌθɔ:rɪ'teəri:ən, ɔ:ˌθɒrɪ'teəri:ən]; authorize, authorized/unauthorized, authorization; authentic [ɔ:'θentɪk], authenticate, authentication, authenticity
■ automate [ˈɔːtəˌmeɪt], automatic/semiautomatic, automaton, autocrat, autocracy {matos, willing}
■ avail, available/ unavailable, unavailing, availability {vail, to be worth}
■ avenue ['ævəˌnu:, 'ævəˌnju:]
■ average ['ævərɪʤ, 'ævrɪʤ]
■ avoid, avoidable, avoidance, unavoidable
■ award {ward}
■ awe [ɔ:], awful, awfully, awesome; overawe
■ awkward ['ɔ:kwərd], awkwardness

■ bachelor ['bæʧələr, 'bæʧlər]/ bachelorette, baccalaureate
■ badge
■ balance ['bæləns]/counterbalance/ overbalance, balanced / unbalanced
■ balcony ['bælkəni]
■ bald [bɔ:ld], baldness, baldly
■ banana [bə'nænə]
■ bang 1 , banger {Old Norse banga hammer} bang 2 {probably short for bangtail, short tail}
■ bar, barring, barrister, barrage; debar/ disbar
■ bark 1 [Old Norse björkr birch] ; bark 2, barker; [Lithuanian burgěti to quarrel, growl]
bark 3, debark/ embark/ disembark, debarkation/embarkation/disembarkation [Middle English barke, boat]
■ barn
■ barrel [ˈbærəl]
■ base [beɪs], basal, baseless, basement/semibasement, basic, basically, basis; abase/ debase, abasement /debasement
■ bastard ['bæstərd]
■ bat 1 , batter; {Old French batre, to beat; see batter} bat 2 {Swedish dialect natt-batta night bat}; bats, batty battery; bat 3 [Probably a variant of bate.]
■ battle ['bætl], battlement, battalion (beat) combat, non-combatant combatant
■ bay 1 {Old French baer, to open out, gape}; bay 2 {Old French baie, from baer, to open up, gape}; bay 3 {Old Irish buide, yellow.}; bay 4 {Middle English abai, the cornering of a hunted animal by barking dogs} bay 5 {Old French baie, berry}
■ beam [bi:m]
■ bean, beanie [bi:n]
■ beard [bɪərd], bearded, beardless
■ beast [bi:st], beastly, beastly, beastiness
■ bee [bi:]
■ beef, beefy
■ beep, beeper
■ beetle
■ beg, beggar, beggarly, beggary
■ belt
■ bench
■ berry ['beri]
■ betray [bɪ'treɪ]
■ billion
■ bitch, bitchy
■ blade
■ blah [blɑ:]
■ blame, blameless, blamable
■ blast, blasted, blasting
■ blaze, blazer, blazing; ablaze
■ blink, blinker
■ block/unblock, blockade, blockage, blockish, bloc
■ blond [blɒnd] /blonde
■ blunt, bluntness
■ bolt 1 {boʊlt}/ unbolt, [Old High German bolz bolt for a crossbow] bolt 2 {Old High German būtil bag}
■ bomb [bɒm], bombing, bomber, bombard, bombardment [bɒm'bɑ:rd, bəm'bɑ:rd]
■ booth [bu:θ, bu:ð]
■ border
■ borrow, borrowing ['bɒroʊ, 'bɔ:roʊ]
■ boss [bɔ:s, bɒs], bossy; emboss, embossment
■ bounce [baʊns], bouncy, bouncing, bouncer
■ bound 1 [baʊnd]; rebound, {Middle French bondir to leap} bound 2, boundary, boundless {Medieval Latin bodina } bound 3 {Old Norse būinn, to get ready} bound 4 см. bind
■ bow 1 [boʊ] {Old English boga arch, bow}; bow 2 [baʊ] {Old English būgan to bend}; bow 3 {Danish bov ship's bow, shoulder; see bough}
■ bowl 1 [boʊl] { Latin bulla, round object.}; bowl 2, bowler {Middle Dutch bolle, round object}
■ brake 1 , braking {Early Modern English brake, bridle, curb (for a horse)}; brake 2; brake 3 {bracken}
■ branch
■ brand, brandish, brandy
■ brave, bravery, bravo, bravado, bravissimo, bravura
■ bribe, bribery
■ brick
■ bride/bridegroom, bridal
■ brilliant ['brɪljənt], brilliantly, brilliance
■ broad [brɔ:d], broadly, broadness, broaden, breadth, breadthways, breadthwise; abroad
■ brow [braʊ]
■ brunet/brunette [bruˈnet]
■ bubble
■ buck 1 [Old English buc, male deer]; buck 2 [Short for buckskin (from its use in trade).]; buck 3 {Dutch bok, male goat, trestle} buck 4 [Short for buckhorn knife (from its use as a marker in poker).]
■ bucket ['bʌkɪt], bucketful
■ bud, buddy
■ bug, buggy
■ bullet ['bʊlɪt]/boulette
■ bump, bumpy, bumpiness, bumper
■ bunch
■ burgle, burglar, burglarize, burglary, burglarious
■ burst/ outburst
■ bury [ˈberi], burial [ˈberɪəl]
■ bush [bʊʃ], bushy, bushing; ambush
■ bust 1 {Italian busto a sculpture , busty; bust 2, buster {a dialect pronunciation of burst}
■ butt 1 , buttocks {Old French but, end, of Germanic origin} butt 2 бодать {Old French bouter, to strike} but 3, abut, abutment; butt 4 [Middle English butte, target
}; butt 4, buttress
■ buzz, buzzer

■ cabbage ['kæbɪʤ]
■ cable
■ cabin ['kæbɪn] , cabinet, cabana ['kæbənɪt]
■ cage, cagey
■ camp, campus, campaign; encamp/decamp, encampment
■ cancel ['kænsəl], cancellation
■ candle ['kændl], candelabrum ; candescence, incandescent, incandenscence
■ candy, candied
■ capture [ˈkæptʃə]/recapture, captious, captiously, captiousness, captive, captivate, captivating, captivity, caption [ˈkæpʃəs]
■ career (car) [kəˈrɪə]
■ carpet ['kɑ:rpɪt]
■ carrot ['kærət]
■ cartridge
■ cash, cashier; encash, encashment
■ castle ['kæsəl]
■ caution [ˈkɔːʃən]/precaution, cautionary/precautionary, cautious/incautious, cautiously
■ cave, cavity, cavern, cavernous; excavate, excavation, excavator; concave, concavity ['kævərn]
■ celebrate ['seləˌbreɪt], celebrated, celebration, celebrity [sə'lebrɪti]
■ cell, cellar, cellular
■ cemetery ['semɪˌteri]
■ cent, centuries, centenary/ bicentenary/ tercentenary/ quincentenary; percent/ per cent, percentage, bicentennial ['senʧəri]
■ challenge ['ʧælənʤ], challenging, unchallenged
■ champagne [ʃæm'peɪn]
■ channel ['ʧænəl]
■ chapter
■ charge/ surcharge/discharge/countercharge/overcharge/ undercharge/recharge, chargeable, charger
■ charm, charmed, charming, charmer
■ chase 1 Middle English chasen, to hunt] chase 2, enchase {Old French enchasser enchase}
■ cheat [ʧi:t], cheating
■ cheek, cheeky
■ cheer, cheering, cheerful, cheerless, cheery, cheerio
■ chemistry ['kemɪstri] /biochemistry, chemical, chemist; alchemy, alchemist
■ cherry
■ chess
■ chew
■ chief [ʧi:f], chiefly, chieftain
■ chill, chilly
■ chin
■ chip, chip
■ choir [kwaɪr], chorus, choral, chorale, chorister ['kɔ:rəs, 'koʊrəs]
■ Christmas ['krɪsməs] / Xmas, christen ['krɪsən], christening, christian ['krɪsʧən], christianity, antichrist, Christ
■ chuck 1 {French choc, knock, blow}, chuck 2 {Dialectal chuck, lump} chuck3, chuckle {Middle English chukken, of imitative origin}
■ civic, civil ['sɪvəl]/uncivil, civility, civilize, civilization, civilian, uncivilized
■ claim/acclaim/reclaim/exclaim/acclaim/disclaim/proclaim/ declaim, acclamation/proclamation/ exclamation/ reclamation/ declamation, exclamatory/ declamatory, claimant, unclaimed, disclaimer
■ clerk [klɜ:rk; Br. klɑ:rk]
■ click
■ client ['klaɪənt], clientele
■ climb [klaɪm], climbing, climber, clamber
■ closet ['klɒzɪt, 'klɔ:zɪt](close)
■ clown [klaʊn]
■ clue [klu:]
■ coal [koʊl]
■ coast [koʊst] , coastal
■ cock 1 /cockerel, cocky {Old Norse kokkr ; orig. imitative} cock 2 {probably v. use of cock 1}; cock 3 {German Kocke heap of hay or dung}
■ coin, coinage
■ collar ['kɒlər]
■ college ['kɒlɪʤ] {legal}
■ colonel
■ column ['kɒləm] , columnist, collonade
■ comb [koʊm], uncombed
■ combine, combination
■ comfort ['kʌmfərt]/discomfort, comfortable ['kʌmfərtəbəl, 'kʌmftəbəl, 'kʌmftər-]/ uncomfortable, comforting, comforter { fortis, strong} {fort}
■ comedy [ˈkɒmɪdi], comic(al)/tragicomic, comicality, comedian [kəˈmiːdɪən]
■ command [kə'mænd], commander, commandment, commando, commandeer, commandant {mandāre, to entrust}
■ commend [kə'mend]/recommend, commendation/recommendation, commendatory/ recommendatory, commendable {mandāre, to entrust}
■ comment ['kɒment], commentary, commentator ['kɒment] {mens, mind}
■ commerce ['kɒmərs], commercial [kə'mɜ:rʃəl]
■ commit [kə'mɪti], commitment, committee/ subcommittee, commission, commissioner, commissionaire, non-committal {mittere, to send}
■ common ['kɒmən] / uncommon, commons, commonly, commonness, commonality, commoner, commonalty {mūnus, task}
■ commune [kə'mju:n], communal, communicate/intercommunicate/excommunicate, communication /excommunication/telecommunications/intercommunication/ intercom, communicative/ uncommunicative, communion, community, communicable, communist/anticommunist, communism/anticommunism, incommunicado (common) {common}
■ compare [kəm'peər], compare, comparable/ incomparable, comparative, comparison, comparably/incomparably {pār, equal}
■ complain, complaint, complainer, plaintiff { plangere, to lament}
■ complete [kəm'pli:t]/incomplete, completely, completion [kəm'pli:ʃən], completeness/incompleteness, completed uncompleted, complement, complementary/ uncomplimentary {plēre, to fill}
■ complicate ['kɒmplɪˏkeɪt], complicated, complication {plicāre, to fold}
■ compose, composed, composer, composite, composition, compositor, composure {poser, to put; pose, oppose, expose, propose, suppose, propose, purpose, dispose}
■ compute [kəm'pju:t], computation, computer {putāre, to reckon}
■ conceal [kən'si:l], concealment {cēlāre, to hide}
■ concern [kən'sɜ:rn], concerning, concerned/unconcerned {cernere, to sift}
■ concert ['kɒnˌsɜ:rt, 'kɒnsərt]/ disconcert, concerted, concerto {certain}
■ conclude, concluding, conclusive/inconclusive, conclusiveness/inconclusiveness, conclusion [kən'klu:d] {claudere, to close}
■ condition [kən'dɪʃən]/ recondition/ precondition, conditional/unconditional, conditioned, conditioner {dīcere, to talk}
■ confer, conference, conferee; confer , conferment [kənˈfɜːr] {ferre, to bring}
■ confess [kən'fes], confessedly, confession, confessor {fatērī, to admit}
■ confide, confident/overconfident, confidential, confidentially, confidently, confiding, confidence [fɪ'delɪti:, faɪ-]{fīdere, to trust}
■ conflict [v. kənˈflɪkt; n. ˈkɒn flɪkt], conflicting {flīgere, to strike}
■ confuse [kən'fju:z], confused, confusing, confusion {fundere, to pour}
■ congratulate, congratulations, congratulations, congratulatory {grātulārī, to rejoice, grātus, pleasing} {grateful}
■ conserve, conservative, conservatoire, conservatory, conservation (serve) {servāre, to preserve; preserve, reserve, observe}
■ consult, consultative, consulting, consultation, consultant, consul, consular, consulate [kən'sʌlt] {calāre, to call}
■ contact ['kɒnˌtækt] ['kɒnˌtækt, kən'tækt] {tangere, to touch}
■ contain, container, containment [kən'teɪn] {tenēre, to hold}
■ contrary, contrary, contrarily, contrariness, contrary to, contrariwise, contrast, contrasting ['kɒnˌtreri]

■ converse 1 {kən'vɜ:rs}, converse, conversant, conversation, conversational {Latin com- + versārī, to occupy oneself}: converse 2 ['kɒnˌvɜ:rs], conversely {Latin conversus, past participle of convertere, to turn around; see convert.} {vertere, to turn; advert, avert, divert, verse, pervert, advertise, universe, reverse, adverse, averse, diverse, perverse,divorce}
■ convert, convertible, convertibility, conversion {vertere, to turn}
■ copper, cop
■ copy ['kɒpi], copyist, copying, copier
■ cork/uncork, corker
■ correct [kə'rekt]/ incorrect, correctly, uncorrected, corrective, correction, correctness/ incorrectness {regere, to rule}
■ corridor ['kɔ:rɪdər, -ˌdɔ:r, 'kɒr-]
■ cotton ['kɒtn]
■ courage ['kɜ:rɪʤ, 'kʌr-]/discourage, courageous [kə'reɪʤəs], courageously, discouragement; encourage, encouragement, encouraging
■ court [kɔ:rt, koʊrt], courteous ['kɜ:rti:əs] /discourteous, courteously, courtesy ['kɜ:rtɪsi], curtsy, courtly, courtliness, courtesity/discourtesity
■ cousin [ˈkʌzən], cousinly, cousinship
■ coward ['kaʊərd], cowardly, cowardice {cow}
■ crack, cracker, crackers; crackle, crackle, crackling
■ craft, craftily, craftiness
■ crash
■ crawl [krɔ:l], crawler
■ cream [kri:m], creamy
■ create [kri:'eɪt]/procreate/recreate, creative [kri:'eɪtɪv], creativity, creator [kri:'eɪtər] , creation/ recreation, creature ['kri:ʧər]
■ credit ['kredɪt] /discredit/accredit, creditable/discreditable, credible/incredible, credibly, credibility/incredibility, credulous/incredulous, credul(i)ty/incredulity, credentials, creditor, creed, credence
■ crew
■ crime, criminal [ˈkrɪmənəl], criminality, criminology, incriminate/ recriminate, criminologist, criminology
■ crow 1 [krəʊ] {Old English crāwa;}; crow 2 {Old English crāwan}
■ cruel ['kru:əl], cruelty
■ crush [krʌʃ], crushing, crusher
■ cult, cultivate, cultivation, uncultivated, culture ['kʌlʧər], cultured/uncultured, cultural
■ cure/pedicure, curative, curable/ incurable, curator; procure, procurement, procurator, procurer [kjʊr]
curio, curious ['kjʊri:əs], curiously, curiosity
■ current ['kɜ:rənt, 'kʌr-] / undercurrent, current, currently, currency
■ curse [kɜ:rs], cursed/ accursed/ accurst; cuss, cussed, cussedness
■ curtain ['kɜ:rtn]
■ custom ['kʌstəm] , customs, customer, customary; accustom, accustomed/unaccustomed ['kʌstəˌmeri]
■ cute [kju:t], cutesy
■ cycle ['sɪkəl]/recycle, cyclist, cyclone/ anticyclone; bicycle/bike, bicycler, bicyclist

■ damage [ˈdæmɪʤ], damaging, undamaged [damn]
■ damn [dæm], damn(ed), damning, damnable, damnation; condemn, condemnation, condemnatory
■ dare, daring
■ dawn [dɔ:n]
■ deaf [def], deafness, deafen, deafening
■ deal, dealing, dealer
■ debt [det], debtor, indebted
■ decent ['di:sənt]/ indecent, decently, decency / indecency ['di:sənsi]
■ declare, declaration, declaratory, declarative [dɪ'kleər] [dɪ'kleərətɪv, -'klær-]{clārāre, to make clear}
■ defend, defendant, defender, defensible/indefensible, defensive, defence, defenceless, , undefended [dɪ'fend] {fendere , to strike}
■ define, definable/ indefinable, definite/indefinite, definitely/indefinitely, definitive, definition, definiteness, undefined [dɪ'faɪn] {fīnis, boundary, limit; final, finish, finite}
■ degree [dɪ'gri:] {gradus, step}
■ delete [dɪ'li:t], deletion, deleterious, deleteriously, indelible {littera, letter}
■ delicate [del'ɪkɪt]/indelicate, delicacy/ indelicacy, delicatessen [del'ɪkəsi] {lacere, to entice}
■ delight [dɪ'laɪt], delightful, delightfully delicious [dɪ'lɪʃəs], deliciously, deliciousness {lacere, to entice}
■ deliver [dɪ'lɪvər], delivery, deliverance, deliverer {līberāre, to free}
■ demand [dɪ'mænd], demanding/ undemanding {mandāre, to entrust}
■ democracy [dɪ'mɒkrəsi], democratic; demographic, demography [ˌdemə'krætɪk]
■ deny, denial, deniable/ undeniable, deniability [dɪ'naɪ] {negāre, to say no}
■ depart, departed, departure, department, departmental {partir, to divide; part}
■ depend [dɪˈpend], dependent/independent/interdependent, dependable/undependable, dependant, dependence/interdependence/ independence, dependency, independently
■ desert 1 ['dezərt] {Latin dēsertum to abandon} desert 2, deserter, desertion; desert {dɪ'zɜ:rt} {Latin dēserere; see desert} desert 3 {Old French deserte, to deserve}
■ deserve, deserved, deservedly, deserving [serve]
■ desire [dɪ'zaɪr], desired, desirable/ undesirable, desirous {sīder, star}
■ desk
■ despair [dɪ'speər], desperate ['despərɪt], desperately, desperation, desperado {spērāre, to hope}
■ detail, detail, detailed [tailor] {tailor}
■ detect [dɪ'tekt], detectable, detection, detective, detector, undetected {tegere, to cover}
■ determine [dɪ'tɜ:rmɪn], determined, determinant, determination, indeterminate, indeterminacy
■ develop [dɪ'veləp], development, developer, underdeveloped/undeveloped {voloper, to wrap}
■ device [dɪ'vaɪs] , devise [dɪ'vaɪz] {videre, to separate}
■ devil ['devəl]/bedevil, devilish, devilishly, devilment, devilry
■ dial ['daɪəl, daɪl]
■ diamond ['daɪəmənd, 'daɪmənd]
■ dictate ['dɪkˌteɪt, dɪk'teɪt] , dictation, dictator, interdict/contradict/ predict, diction/ malediction/ prediction/interdiction / contradiction, dictionary ['dɪkʃəˌneri], dictum ['dɪktəm], contradictory, predicate, predication, predicative, predictable/ unpredictable
■ dig, digging, digger, digs
■ disappoint, disappointing, / disappointment
■ discuss [dɪ'skʌs], discussion {quatere, to shake}

■ distinct [dɪ'stɪŋkt]/indistinct, distinction/contradistinction, distinctive, distinctly, distinctness/indistinctness [dɪ'stɪŋkʃən] {stinguere, to prick}
■ disturb, disturbance, disturbed/ undisturbed, disturbing {turbāre, to agitate; turbine}
■ dive, diving, diver
■ divide/subdivide, undivided, dividend, dividers, division/ subdivision, divisible/indivisible, indivisibility, divisive, divisor; individual, individualism [dɪ'vaɪd] [dɪ'vɪʒən] {videre, to separate}
■ divorce, divorcee [dɪ'vɔ:rs, -'voʊrs] {vertere, to turn}
■ document ['dɒkjəmənt], documentary, documentation [ˌdɒkjə'mentəri]
■ draft/draught/overdraft, redraft, draftee, drafty/draughty, drafting, drafter
■ drag, dragging
■ drama ['drɑ:mə, 'dræmə]/ melodrama, dramatic/melodramatic, dramatically, dramatics, dramatize, dramaturgy, dramatist [drə'mætɪk]
■ drift, drifter; adrift
■ drown, drowned, drowning
■ drug, druggist
■ due/ undue, duly/ unduly, duty, dutiful, duteous; overdue, subdue, subdued [du:, dju:] ['du:ti, 'dju:-]
■ dull, dullard, dullish, dullness
■ dumb [dʌm], dumbness; dummy
■ dump, dumping, dumpy, dumpster
■ dusk, duskiness, dusky

■ eager ['i:gər], eagerly, eagerness
■ eagle ['i:gəl]
■ earn [ɜ:rn], earnings, unearned
■ echo ['ekoʊ]
■ economic (al)/ uneconomic(al), economy, economics, economize [ɪ'kɒnəmi] [ˏekə'nɒmɪk, ˏi:kə-] [ˏekə'nɒmɪks, ˏi:kə-]
■ edit ['edɪt], editor/ sub-editor, editorship, editorial, edition [ˏedɪ'tɔ:ri:əl, -'toʊr-]
■ educate ['eʤəˏkeɪt]/re-educate, educated/ uneducated, educator, education/ coeducation/coed, educational/ coeducational, education(al)ist, educator, educative ] [ˌedjʊˈkeɪʃən] [ˏeʤə'keɪʃən]
■ effect/ after-effect, effective/ineffective, effectively, effectiveness / ineffectiveness, effectual/ ineffectual, effectuate; efficient/ inefficient, efficiency/inefficiency, efficacious, inefficacy, coefficient [ɪ'fekt] {facere, to make}
■ effort, effortless ['efərt] {fortis, strong} {fort}
■ elbow (bow) ['elˏboʊ] {bow}
■ elect [ɪ'lekt]/ re-elect, election, elector, elective, electoral, electorate; eligible/ ineligible, eligibility/ inelegibility [ɪ'lekʃən] [ɪ'lektərəl] ['elɪʤəbəl] {legere, to choose}
■ element ['eləmənt], elemental, elementary
■ elephant
■ elevate ['eləˏveɪt], elevated, elevating, elevation, elevator {levāre, to raise}
■ embarrass [ɪm'bærəs], embarrassed, embarrassing, embarrassment
■ emphasis, emphasize/ overemphasize/ de-emphasize, emphatic, emphatically ['emfəsɪs] {phainein, to show}
■ employ, employee, employer, employment/unemployment/underemployment, unemployed/ underemployed, employable/unemployable [em'plɔɪ] {plicāre, to fold}
■ energy, energetic ['enərʤi:] [ˏenər'ʤetɪk]
■ engage, engaged, engagement, engaging [gage]
■ engine, engineer, engineering ['enʤɪn] [ˏenʤə'nоr] {genium, produce}
■ entire, entirely, entirety [en'taɪr] [en'taɪrɪti:, -'taɪrti] {tangere, to touch}
■ envy, enviable/ unenviable, envious, enviously, invidious, invidiousness ['envi] {vidēre, to see}
■ equal/ inequal/ unequal, equal, equality/ inequality, equalize, equalization, equally, equable, equate, equation, equator, equatorial, equity/inequity, equitable/ inequitable; adequate/inadequate, adequacy ['i:kwəl] [ɪ'kwɒlɪti]
■ equip/re-equip, equipment [ɪ'kwɪp] {skipa, ship}
■ er
■ err, erring/ unerring, error, errant, erroneous, erroneousness, erratum, erratic, errancy ['erər]
■ escape, escapism, escapee, inescapable [ɪ'skeɪp] {cappa, cloak}
■ event, eventful, eventual, eventually, eventuality [ɪ'vent] [ɪˈventʃʊəl] [ɪ'venʧu:əl] {venīre, to come}
■ evident, evidential, evidence ['evɪdənt] {videre, to see}
■ evil ['i:vəl]
■ ex
■ exact/ inexact, exacting, exactly, exactness/ inexactness, inexactitude [ɪg'zækt] {agere, to weigh}
■ example [ɪg'zæmpəl], exemplary, exemplify
■ excel, excellent, excellently, excellence, excellency, par excellence [ɪk'sel] {cellere, to rise high}
■ excite, excited/ overexcited, excitement, exciting, excitable, excitability, excitation [ɪk'saɪt] {ciēre, to set in motion}
■ execute, execution, executive, executor, executants, executioner ['eksɪˏkju:t] {sequī, to follow}
■ exercise ['eksərˏsaɪz] {arcēre, to restrain}
■ exhibit [ɪɡˈzɪbɪt], exhibition, exhibitionist, exhibitor, exhibitioner {habēre, to hold}
■ exist/ coexist, existent/ non-existent, existence/ coexistence/ nonexistence [ɪg'zɪst] {sistere, to stand}
■ exit ['egzɪt, 'eksɪt] {īre, to go}
■ expend, expendable, expenditure, expense, expensive/ inexpensive [ɪk'spend] [ɪk'spendəʧər] {pendere, to weigh}
■ experience/ inexperience, experienced/ inexperienced; experiment, experimental; expert, expertness, expertise (peril) [ɪk'spɪəri:əns] [ɪk'sperəmənt] {peril}
■ explode, explosive, explosion, unexploded [ɪk'sploʊd] [ɪk'sploʊʒən] {plaudere, to clap}
■ expose/overexpose, exposed/ unexposed, exposure, expository, exposition, expositive, expository
■ extend, extendible/extensible, extent, extension, extensive [ɪk'stend] [ɪk'stenʃən] {tendere, to stretch}
■ extreme, extremely, extremist, extremity, extremeness, extra ['ekstrə] [ɪk'stri:m]

■ factor/malefactor factory , factulty; artifact, artifice, artificer, artificial, artificially, artificiality; manufacture, manufacture, manufacturing, manufacturer
■ fade, faded
■ faint, faintly, faintness [feɪnt]
■ faith, faithful/ unfaithful, faithfulness, faithfully, faithless, faithlessness [fate] [feɪθ]
■ fake, faker, fakery
■ false, falsely, falsehood, , falsity, falsify, falsification, falsifier [fɔ:ls]
■ fan 1 {Latin vannus winnowing basket}; fan 2/ fanatic, fanatical, fanaticism [Short for fanatic.]
■ fantasy, fantastic ['fæntəsi, -zi]
■ farm, farmer, farming
■ fashion / refashion, fashionable/unfashionable, fashionably ['fæʃən]
■ fate, fatal, fateful, fatalist, fatalistic, fatalism, fatality, fatally
■ favor [ˈfeɪvər] / disfavor, favorable [ˈfeɪvərəbəl, ˈfeɪvrə-] / unfavorable, favourite [ˈfeɪvərɪt, ˈfeɪvrɪt] , favoritism, favorer
■ feature, featureless ['fi:ʧər]
■ female, feminine/ unfeminine, feminist, feminism; effeminacy, effeminate ['fi:'meɪl] ['femənɪn]
■ fence , fencing; {Middle English fens, short for defens, defense; see defense.} fence , fencer, fencing {Middle English fens, short for defens, defense; see defense.} [fens]
■ fever, fevered, feverish ['fi:vər]

■ file 1 ; profile {From Middle English filen, to put documents on file} file 2, filing {Old English fīl, sharp} file 3 {Old English fūl foul}
■ film/ microfilm, filmy, filming
■ finite/infinite, infinitely , ad infinitum, definite/ indefinite, definitely/indefinitely, definitive, definition, definiteness, define, undefined, definable/indefinable; infinitive, infinity [final, finish] ['faɪnəl] {final, finish}
■ finance, financial, financier [fə'næns, faɪ-, 'faɪˏnæns]
■ fist, fistful
■ fit 1 /unfit/ misfit/ refit/ outfit/ befit, fitter, fitting, fitness, unfitted; {Middle English fitten, to be suitable, marshal troops} fit 2, fitful {Old English fitt, struggle}
■ flame, flammable/nonflammable, flaming; aflame; inflame, inflammable/ non-inflammable, infalmability, inflammation, inflammatory, flamboyant
■ flash, flashy, flashiness
■ flatter, flatterer, flattering/unflattering, flattery ['flætər]
■ flesh, fleshly, fleshy
■ fluent, fluency; effluent, effluence, effluvium; affluent, affluence; confluence; influence, influential {flow}{fluere, to flow; flow}
■ focus, focus/ bifocal ['foʊkəs] ['foʊkəl]
■ fog, foggy
■ fold 1 /unfold/ enfold, folder, folding {Old High German faldan, double} fold 2 [foʊld] {Old English falod}
color="Maroon">■ folk, folksy [foʊk]
■ fond; fondle, fondler [fɒnd]
■ forbid, forbidden, forbidding
■ foreign, foreigner [ˈfɒrɪn]
■ fortune/misfortune, fortunate/unfortunate, fortunately/ unfortunately, fortunateness ['fɔ:rʧən] ['fɔ:rʧənɪt]
■ found 1 , foundation, founder, profound [faʊnd] [faʊn'deɪʃən] {Latin fundus, bottom} found 2 {Old French fondre } found 3 {Past tense and past participle of find}
■ fountain [ˈfaʊntɪn]
■ frame
■ frank, frankly, frankness
■ fraud /defraud, fraudulent, fraudulently, fraudulence [frɔ:d]
■ frequent/ infrequent, unfrequented, frequently/ infrequently, frequency/ infrequency ['fri:kwənt]
■ fright , frighten, frightening, frightful [fraɪt]
■ frog
■ frown [fraʊn]
■ fruit, fruity, fruitful/ unfruitful, fruitless [fru:t]
■ fuck, fucker
■ fuel/ refuel, fuelling ['fju:əl]
■ function/ malfunction, malfunction, functional, functionary
■ funeral, funereal ['fju:nərəl]
■ fury, furious; infuriate, infuriation ['fjʊri]

■ gain/regain, gainer, gainful, ungainly, gainings
■ gamble, gambler, gambling ['gæmbəl]
■ gang, gangster
■ gap
■ garbage (garb) [ˈgɑːbɪdʒ]
■ gas, gaseous, gasoline ['gæsi:əs, 'gæshəs]
■ gate
■ gather/forgather, gathering ['gæðər]
■ generous, generously, generosity ['ʤenərəs]
■ gene [ʤi:n] , genetics [ˈʤənetɪks] , genealogy, genealogical, genetic, genus, generic; degenerative, degeneracy, generate/regenerate/degenerate, generation/ regeneration/ degeneration, generator, generic, gender [ˌʤi:ni:ˈɒləʤi:, -ˈæl-, ʤeni:-] [ˈʤi:nəs] [ʤəˈnerɪk] [ˈʤendər]
■ general, generally, generic, generality, generalize, generalization, generalissimo
■ genius, genial, geniality, genuine, genunely, genuneness; congenial, congeniality, congenital, progeny, progenitor; ingenious, ingenuity, ingenuous/disingenuous, ingenousness / disingenuousness ['ʤi:njəs] ['ʤi:njəl] ['ʤenju:ɪn]
■ gesture, gesticulate, gesticulative, gesticulator, gesticulatory, gesticulation ['ʤesʧər] [ʤe'stɪkjəˏleɪt]
■ glory/vainglory, glorious/inglorious/ vainglorious, gloriously, gloriousness, glorify, glorification, glorifier ['glɔ:rə, 'gloʊri] ['glɔ:ri:əs, 'gloʊri:əs ] ['glɔ:rəˏfaɪ, 'gloʊr-]
■ glow/afterglow/ aglow, glowing [gloʊ]
■ glue [glu:]
■ goal, goalie [goʊl]
■ goat, goatee [goʊt]
■ goose/geese, gosling
■ grab
■ grace/ disgrace, gracious, graciously, graciousness, graceful/disgraceful, gracefully /disgracefully
■ grade/upgrade/degrade/downgrade/ centigrade, grader, gradual, gradually, gradation/degradation, gradient, graduate/postgraduate/ undergraduate, graduation, degrading
■ grape
■ grateful/ungrateful, gratefulness, gratefully; gratitude/ingratitude, gratify, gratification, gratis, gratuitous, gratuitously, gratuitousness, gratuity, ex gratia; [grate] ['grætɪs, 'grɑ:tɪs, 'greɪ-] [grə'tu:ɪtəs, -'tju:-] [grə'tu:ɪti, grə'tju:ɪti] [kən'græʧəˏleɪt, -'græʤ-, kəŋ-] [-ləˏtɔ:ri, ]
■ grave 1 {Old English græf}, grave 2 {Latin gravis ; heavy}, gravely; grave 3, engrave, engraving {Old High German graban to dig}
■ greed, greedy, greediniess
■ grief, grieve/aggrieve, griever, grievous, grievously, grievance, aggrieved [gri:f] [gri:v]
■ grin
■ grip, gripping
■ groan [ɡrəʊn]
■ growl [graʊl]
■ guarantee, guarantor [ˌɡærənˈtiː]
■ guard [ɡɑːd]/ vanguard/
■ guide, guidance, misguided [gaɪd]
■ guilt, guilty, guiltiness [gɪlt]
■ gull 1 / seagull; {Middle English gulle, possibly of Brythonic origin} gull 2, gullible, gullibility {Probably from gull, to swallow (obsolete)} {perhaps from dialect gull unfledged bird, probably from gul, from Old Norse gulr yellow} ['gʌləbəl]
■ gymnasium/gym, gymnast, gymnastics [ʤɪm'neɪzi:əm]

■ ha/hah [hɑ:]
■ hall [hɔ:l]
■ hammer ['hæmər]
■ handsome [hand+some]
■ harbor ['hɑ:rbər]
■ harm, unharmed, harmful, harmless
■ hawk, hawker
■ heal, healing, healer, health, healthy/ unhealthy, healthful [hi:l] [helθ]
■ heap [hi:p]
■ heaven, heavenly ['hevən]
■ heel
■ helix, helicopter ['hi:lɪks] ['helɪˏkɒptər]
■ hero, heroine, heroic, heroically, heroism ['hоroʊ] [hɪ'roʊɪk]
■ hesitate, hesitation, hesitant, hesitantly, hesitance, hesitancy, unhesitating ['hezɪˏteɪt] ['hezɪtənt]
■ hey
■ hint, hint
■ hip 1 {Gothic hups hip, loin}; hip 2 {Old English hēope hip, Old High German hiufo bramble]: hip 3 {Origin unknown} hip 4 {Usually used to begin a cheer: Hip, hip, hooray!}
■ hire/rehire, hired [haɪ(ə)r]
■ hiss
■ hm, hmm

■ homicide [ˈhɒmɪˌsaɪd], homicidal
■ hood [hʊd]
■ hop 1 , hopper {Middle Low German hupfen} hop 2 {Norwegian hupp tassel}
■ horizon, horizontal [hə'raɪzən] [ˏhɔ:rɪ'zɒntl, ˏhɒr-]
■ horn, horny, horned, hornless, cornucopia
■ hospital, inhospitality, hospitalize, hospitalization, hospitality, hospitable/ inhospitable ['hɒspɪtl, -ˏpɪtl] ['hspɪtəbəl, hɒ'spɪtəbəl]
■ host, hostess, hostage [hoʊst]
■ howl, howling, howler [haʊl]
■ hug
■ huge, hugely
■ huh []
■ humiliate, humiliating, humiliation, humility [hju:'mɪli:ˏeɪt]
■ hunt, hunter, hunting

■ identify, identification,entity, identical [aɪ'dentəˏfaɪ] [aɪ'dentɪti]
■ idiot, idiotic, idiocy ['ɪdi:ət] [ˏɪdi:'ɒtɪk] ['ɪdi: si]
■ idle, idler, idleness, idly ['aɪdl]
■ ignore, ignorant, ignorance, ignoramus [ɪg'nɔ:r, -'noʊr] ['ɪgnərənt] {noscere, to know}
■ improve, improvement, improvable {prove}
■ inch
■ incident, incidental/coincindental, incidentally, incidence/coincidence, coincide ['ɪnsɪdənt] [ɪn sɪ'dentl] {cadere, to fall}
■ include, including, inclusive, inclusion [ɪn'klu:d] {claudere, to close}
■ increase, increasing, increasingly [v. ɪnˈkri:s; n. ˈɪn kri:s] {crēscere, to grow}
■ indicate, indication, indicative, indicator [ˈɪndɪˌkeɪt] {dicāre, to proclaim}
■ injure, injured/uninjured, injurious, injury [ˈɪndʒər] [ˈɪndʒəd] {iūr, law}
■ ink [ɪŋk]
■ inn
■ innocent, innocence ['ɪnəsənt] {nocēre, to hurt, harm}
■ insect insecticide {sect}
■ insist, insistence, insistent [ɪn'sɪst] {sistere, to stand}
■ inspect, inspection, inspector {spectāre, to look at; spectator, expect, respect, retrospect, suspect, prospect, aspect}
■ instant, instance, instantaneous [stance] ['ɪnstənt] {stance}
■ institute, institution, institutional ['ɪnstɪˏtu:t, -ˏtju:t] {statuere, to set up}
■ instruct, instruction, instructive, instructor {struere , to build}
■ instrument ['ɪnstrəmənt], instrumental, instrumentality, instrumentalist {struere, to build}
■ insult, insulting [v. ɪnˈsʌlt; n. ˈɪn sʌlt] {salīre, to leap}
■ intellect, intellectual, intellectuality; intelligent/unintelligent, intelligence/counterintelligence, intelligible/unintelligible, intelligibility, intelligentsia (ˈɪntɪˌlɛkt) [ɪn'teləʤənt] {legere , to choose}
■ intend, unintended, unintentional; superintend, superintendent, superintendence, intent, intention, intentional, intently [tend]
■ intense, intensely, intensness, intensive, intensity, intensify, intensity {tendere, to stretch}
■ introduce [ˏɪntrə'du:s, -'dju:s], introduction/intro, introductory {ducere, to lead}
■ invent, invention, inventive, inventor, inventory [ɪn'vent] {venīre, to come}
■ investigate, investigate, investigation, investigator [ɪn'vestɪˏgeɪt] {vestīre, to clothe} {vestige}
■ involve, involved, involvement [ɪn'vɒlv] {volvere, to roll, turn}
■ irony, ironic(al), ironically ['aɪrəni, 'aɪər-] [aɪ'rɒnɪk]
■ irritate ['ɪrɪˏteɪt], irritating, irritation, irritable, irritably, irritability, irritant
■ issue/ reissue ['ɪʃu:] [ˈɪʃuː; ˈɪsjuː]

■ jam, jamming
■ jar 1 {Arabic jarrah large earthen vessel}; jar 2, jarring {Perhaps of imitative origin}
■ jaw [ʤɔ:]
■ jazz, jazzy
■ jealous ['ʤeləs], jealousy ['ʤeləsi]
■ jeans [ʤi:n]
■ jerk, jerky [ʤɜ:rk], jerkily
■ jet 1 ; {Latin iacere, to throw} jet 2 {Old French jaiet stone of Gagai, a town in Lycia, Asia Minor}
■ jewel ['ʤu:əl], jeweler, jewellery/ jewelry
■ journal ['ʤɜ:rnəl], journalism, journalist, journalese
■ journey ['ʤɜ:rni]
■ judge/ misjudge, judgment/misjudgment, judicial, judiciary, judicious/injudicious, judiciously, judiciousness/injudiciousness; adjudge, adjudgment, adjudicate, adjudicator; prejudice, prejudgment, prejudge, prejudiced/ unprejudiced, prejudicial [ʤʌʤ] [ʤu:'dɪʃəl] [ʤu:'dɪʃəs] ['preʤədɪs]
■ juice, juicy, juicer, juiciness [ʤu:s]
■ jungle ['ʤʌŋgəl]
■ junior
■ junk, junketing, junkie
■ jury, juror, jurist ['ʤʊrɪst], juror, jurisdiction, jurisprudence; perjure, perjury [ˈpɜːdʒə]

■ kerchief/ handkerchief [ˈkɜːtʃɪf]
■ kettle ['ketl]
■ knit, knitted, knitting; knot, knotted, knotty [nɪt]
■ knob

■ labor ['leɪbər], labored, laborious, laboratory/lab, laboriousness, laborer; elaborate/collaborate, elaborately, elaboration / collaboration; belabor [lə'bɔ:ri:əs, -'boʊr-]
■ lack
■ lawn [lɔ:n]
■ lax, laxity, laxative, relax, relaxation, relaxed
■ leak, leaker, leaky, leakage
■ lean 1 [li:n], leaning {Old English hleonian, hlinian; related to Old High German hlinēn, Latin clīnāre to incline}; lean 2, leanness {Old English hlǣne, of Germanic origin}
■ leap [li:p]
■ leather ['leð r], leathery, leatherette
■ lecture ['lekʧər], lecturer, lectureship, lector
■ legal ['li:gəl]/illegal, legally/illegally, legality/illegality, legalize, legalization, legalist, legalistic, legalism, legacy, legislate, legislation, legislator, legislature, legitimate /illegitimate, legitimacy/ illegitimacy, legitimize, legitimization, legate, legation; delegate, delegation; relegate [li:'gælɪti:] ['li:gə-,laɪz] ['legəsi:] ['leʤɪ,sleɪt] ['leʤɪ,sleɪʧə r] [lə'ʤɪtɪəməsi] [lɪ'geɪʃən]
■ legend, legendary ['leʤənd] ['leʤən,deri:]
lemon, lemonade [ˈlemən]
■ lend (lent), lending, lender
■ liberal, liberalism, liberality, liberate, liberation, liberty, libertine, libertinism, ad lib, ad libitum ['lɪbərəl, 'lɪbrəl] [,lɪbə'rælɪti:] ['lɪbərti]
■ licence ['laɪsns], licensee
■ lick, licking, lickerish
■ lid
■ lieutenant [lu:'tenənt, lef'tenənt]
■ limit/delimit, limitation, limited/unlimited, limitless ['lɪmɪt]
■ limousine/ limo [ˈlɪməˌziːn; ˌlɪməˈziːn]
■ link, linkage
■ liquid ['lɪkwɪd], liquidate, liquidation, liquidize, liquidizer, liquefy, liquefaction; liqueur [lɪ'kɜ:r, -'kjʊr]
■ list 1 / enlist/re-enlist, enlistment; {Italian lista list of names (earlier: border, strip, as of paper)} list 2 {Old English līste} list 3 {orig. Uncertain} list 4, listless, listlessness {Gothic lūston to desire}

■ literal ['lɪtərəl], literacy, literate/semiliterate/ illiterate, literalness, literally ['lɪtə,reri:], literary, literately, literateness, literature, literacy/ illiteracy ['lɪtərɪt] ['lɪtərə,ʧʊr, -ʧər] ['lɪtərəsi]
litre ['li:tər]/liter /milliliter
■ load [loʊd]/ overload/ unload/ reload, loaded, loader, loading; lade, laden
■ local, locale, locality, localize, localization, locate/allocate/dislocate/relocate, location/allocation / dislocation ['loʊkəl] [loʊ'kælɪti]
■ logic ['lɒʤɪk], logical/illogical, logically, logician, illogicality, neologism [ni:'ɒləʤ,ɪzəm]
■ loose [lu:s], loosen, loosenness
■ lord, lordly
■ lug, luggage
■ lung, aqualung
■ luxury ['lʌgʒəri, 'lʌkʃə-], luxuriant, luxuriantly, luxuriance, luxurious, luxuriously, luxuriousness, luxuriate [lʌg'ʒʊri:ənt, lʌk'ʃʊr-]

■ madam ['mædəm]/ ma'am/ mademoiselle
■ magic ['mæʤɪk], magic(al), magician, Magi [mə'ʤɪʃən]
■ maid, maiden, maidenly
■ maintain, maintenance
■ major ['meɪʤər], major, majority, majorette
■ male
■ manner ['mænər], mannerly/unmannerly, mannered, mannerism
■ marble ['mɑ:rbəl], marbled
■ market ['mɑ:rkɪt] / supermarket, market, marketable
■ mask/unmask
■ mass 1 , amass, massive, en mass; {Latin massa that which forms a lump} mass 2 {Latin mittere to send away}
■ mat 1 {Latin matta mat of rushes} mat 2, matted {Latin mattus, stupefied, senseless}
■ mate/ inmate, mat(e)y
■ measure ['meʒər]/ remeasure/countermeasure, measured, measurement, measuring, measurable / immeasurable, immeasurably
■ mechanic [mɪ'kænɪk], mechanical, mechanically, mechanics, mechanize, mechanism, mechanization
■ medium (media), mediate/immediate/intermediate, mediator, immediately, intermediary, immediacy, [ˈmiːdɪə] [ɪ'mi:di:ɪt] [v. ˈmi diˌeɪt; adj. -ɪt]
■ member/non-member/ dismember, dismemberment, membership
■ menu ['menju:]
■ mercy ['mɜ:rsi:], merciful / unmerciful, merciless
■ mere, merely [mɪ(ə)r]
■ merge, merge/ submerge, merger, emerge, emergence, emergent, emergency
■ mess, mess, messy
■ method, methodical, methodist, methodology, methodological, methodologist ['meθəd]
■ might 1 , mighty/almighty, mightily, mightiness; might 2 [maɪt] [см. may]
■ military ['mɪlɪ,teri]/ paramilitary, militarily, militate, militant, militancy, militia [mə'lɪʃə]; demilitarize, demilitarization;
■ mine 1 , undermine, mining, miner {Medieval Latin mina mine, mineral} mine 2 {см. I}
■ mini, minor, minority, minus, miniature, minim, minimal, minimize, minimal, minuscule; diminish, diminution, diminutive
■ minister ['mɪnɪstər], ministerial, ministry; administrate, administrative, administrator, administration/ maladministration, administer [mɪn ɪ'stɪ(ə)ri:əl] [mɪn ɪ-stri:]
■ miracle ['mɪrəkəl], miraculous [mɪ'rækyələs]
■ misery ['mɪzəri], miserable ['mɪzərəbəl, 'mɪzrə-], miserably, miserly, miserliness, miser; commiserate, commiseration
■ mist/demist, misty, demister
■ mix/ admix, mixture/ admixture, mixed, mixer
■ mmm/mm
■ mobile/immobile, mobilize/immobilize/ demobilize, mobility/immobility, mobilization/demobilization, automobile ['moʊbəl, -,bi:l, -,baɪl] ['moʊbə,laɪz]
■ mock, mocker, mockery, mocking
■ mode, model/remodel, outmoded, modish, modelling; modal; commode/incommode/discommode, commodious/incommodious, commodity
■ modern ['modərn]/ultramodern, modernize, modernism, modernist, modernistic
■ mom
■ mood 1 [mu:d], moody {Old English mōd, disposition} mood 2 [mu:d] {Alteration of mode}
■ motor, motorized, motorist, motion/commotion, motionless, motivate; emote, emotion / emotional/ unemotional, emotionally [ˈməʊʃən] ['moʊtər]
■ moustache/ mustache [ˈmʌsˏtæʃ, məˈstæʃ]
■ mud, muddy
■ murder ['mɜ:rdər], murderous, murderer
■ murmur [ˈmɜːmə]
■ muscle, muscular ['mʌskjələr], musculature ['mʌsəl]
■ mystery, mysterious, mystic(al), mysticism, mystify, mystique ['mɪstəri]

■ naked, nakedness [ˈneɪkɪd]
■ narrow ['næroʊ], narrowly, narrowness, narrows
■ nasty ['næsti:], nastily
■ neat [ni:t], neatness
■ needle [need]
■ negate [nɪ'geɪt], negated, negative, negation; abnegate, abnegation ['negətɪv]
■ neglect [nɪˈɡlɛkt], neglected, neglectful, negligent, negligence, negligible, negligee
■ nephew ['nefju:]
■ nest, nestle, nestling
■ net 1 , netting; {Gothic nati, Dutch net} net 2 {Latin nitidus, clean, elegant}
■ nether, underneath, beneath [bɪ'ni:θ, bɪ'ni:ð]
■ niece [ni:s]
■ novel ['nɒvəl], novelist, novelty, novelette, novice, nova; renovate/ innovate, renovation ['nɒvəlti]
■ nude [nu:d, nju:d], nudity; denude, denuded, denudation
■ numeral, numerical, numerous, numeration/enumeration, numerator, numerate/enumerate, numerable/ innumerable
■ nurse [nɜ:rs], nursing, nursery, nurs(e)ling, nurture
■ nut, nutty, nutter, nuts

■ oak [oʊk]
■ obey [oʊ'beɪ]/ disobey, obedient/ disobedient obedience/ disobedience, obeisance [oʊ'bi:di:ənt] [oʊ'beɪsəns, oʊ'bi:-] {audīre , to hear}
■ object ['ɒbʤɪkt, -ˏʤekt], objection, objectionable, objective, objectivity {jacere, throw}
■ observe [əb'zɜ:rv], observable, observance, observant/ unobservant, observation, observatory, observer, unobserved [əb'zɜ:rvə,tɔ:ri:, -,toʊri:] {servāre, to preserve; conserve, preserve, reserve}
■ obvious ['ɒbvi:,eɪt], obviously, obviousness, obviate [via] ['ɒbvi:əs] {via}
■ occasion, occasional, occasionally [ə'keɪʒən] {cadere , to fall}
■ occur [ə'kɜ:r]/reoccur, occurrence {curere, to run}
■ occupy/ preoccupy, occupation/ preoccupation, occupational, occupier, occupant, occupied/ unoccupied ['ɒkjəˏpaɪ] ['ɒkjəpənt] {capere , to take}
■ odd [ d], oddish, oddishness, oddly, odds, oddness, oddment, oddity
■ offend [ə'fend], offender, offensive/ counter-offensive/ inoffensive, offence, inoffensiveness {fendere, strike}
■ offer ['ɔ:fər, 'ɒfər]/ counteroffer, offering; proffer {fere, bring}
■ oh []/ ohh/ ohhh/ ohhhh
■ onion ['ʌnjən]
■ opera ['ɒpərə, 'ɒprə], operatic, operetta, operate/ cooperate, operating, operation/cooperation, operator, operational, operative/cooperative/ inoperative, inoperativeness, inoperable, inoperability ['ɒpə'rætɪk] ['ɒpə'retə] ['ɒpə'reɪt]
■ opine, opinion, opinionated [ə'pɪnjən]
■ opportune [ə'poʊnənt]/inopportune, opportunity, opportunism, opportunist, opportunistic, opponent ] ['ɒpər'tu:n, -'tju:n] ['ɒpər'tu:nɪti:, -'tju:-] {portus, harbor}
■ organ ['ɔ:rgən], organic, organism/ microorganism, organist, organize/ reorganize/disorganaize, organized/ disorganized, organization/ reorganization/ disorganization, organizer ['ɔ:rgə-naɪz ]
■ origin ['ɔ:rəʤɪn, 'ɒr-], original, originally, originality, originate, origination, originative, originator; aborigine

■ pace, apace
■ pad, padding/ paddy
■ pal
■ palace ['pælɪs]
■ palm 1 , palm, palmist; {Middle English paume, palm of the hand} palm 2, palmy, palmary {Middle English paume, palm of the hand} [pɑːm]
■ pan 1 {Latin patina, shallow pan, platter}; pan 2, pan/ panorama {Short for panorama or panoramic.}
■ panic, panick, panicky
■ pants/underpants, panties
■ pardon, pardonable/ unpardonable ['pɑ:rdn]
■ parley, parlance, parliament, parliamentary, parlor, parole ['pɑ:rli:] ['pɑ:rləns] ['pɑ:rləmənt]
■ parrot ['pærət]
■ passion ['pæʃən]/compassion, passionate/ compassionate/ dispassionate, passionately/ compassionately/ dispassionately, impassioned, dispassionateness ['pæʃənɪt]
pater, paternal, paternity, patricide, expatriate, expatriation, patron, patronage, patronize, patronizing, patronymic, patriarch, patriarchal, patriarchy, patriarchate, patrician; patriot/ compatriot, patriotic, patriotism [ek'speɪtri:,eɪt] ['peɪtrən] ['peɪtri:ət, -ˏɒt]
■ patient ['peɪʃənt]/in-patient/ outpatient/impatient, patiently/impatiently, patience/ impatience (pathetic)
■ paw [pɔ:]
■ pepper ['pepər]/ pep, peppery
■ per [pɜ:r]
■ perform [pər'fɔ:rm], performing, performance, performer (form)
■ period ['pɪ(ə)ri:əd], periodic, periodically, periodical
■ permanent ['pɜ:rmənənt]/impermanent, permanently, permanence/ impermanence/ perm {manēre, to remain}
■ permit [pər'mɪt], permissible/ impermissible, permissive, permission {mittere , to let go}
■ physics/ biophysics, physical, physically, physician, physicist, physique, physiology, physiological, physiologist ['fɪzɪks] ['fɪzɪkəl]
■ pigeon ['pɪʤən]
■ pile 1 {Latin pīla, pillar}; pile 2 {Latin pīlum, spear, pestle}; compile, compilation, compiler; pale 3 {Anglo-Norman peil, hair} 4 piles {Latin pilae literally, balls}
■ pill
■ pillow ['pɪloʊ]
■ pilot [(ˈpaɪlət)]/ co-pilot, pilotless, pilotage
■ pin/ unpin
■ pink, pinkie/ pinky [pɪŋk]
■ pipe, piper, piping
■ pirate ['paɪrɪt], piratical, piracy [paɪ'rætɪkəl] ['paɪrəsi:]
■ pity ['pɪti], pitiful/pitiable, pitifully, pitiless, pitilessness, pittance, piteous, piteously ['pɪti:əs]
■ plain, plainness
■ planet, planetarium, planetary [ˈplænɪt]
■ plus, surplus, nonplus
■ poem ['poʊəm], poet ['poʊɪt]/ poetess, poetry ['poʊɪtri:], poetic(al) [poʊ'etɪk]
■ poison ['pɔɪzən], poisonous
■ pole 1 [Greek polos, axis, sky], polar, polarize, polarization, polarity; pole 2 [Latin pālus, stake]
■ pool 1 {Dutch poell }; pool 2 {French poule stakes, literally, hen} [puːl]
■ popular/ unpopular, popularity, popularly, populate/ depopulate/overpopulate, populated/ overpopulated/ depopulated/ underpopulated, population/ depopulation, populous, populace, popularize, popularization ['popjələr] [,popjə'lærɪti] [,pɒpjə'leɪʃən]
■ porch
■ portray, portrayal, portrait [pɔ:r'treɪ, poʊr-] ['pɔ:rtrɪt, -,treɪt, ,poʊr-]
(moved)
■ portion, apportion, apportionment, proportion/ disproportion, proportional, proportionate/ disproportionate, disproportionately
■ positive ['pɒzɪtɪv], positively, positron
■ pot, potty, potted, potter, pottery, potable
■ pound 1 , poundage {Latin pondō, (a pound) by weight} pound 2 [Dutch puin rubble]; pound 3 {Old English pund-, enclosure (as in pundfall, pen)}
■ pour [pɔ:r, poʊr]/downpour, pouring/outpouring
■ powder ['paʊdər], powdered, powdery
■ pray, prayer, prayerful
■ prepare [prɪ'peər], prepared/unprepared, preparedness, preparation/prep, preparatory [,prepə'reɪʃən] [prɪ'pærə,tɔ:ri:, -,toʊri:, -'peər-, 'prepərə-] {parāre , to make ready}
■ pretend, pretence/pretense, pretension, pretentious/ unpretentious, pretentiously/ unpretentiously, pretentiousness [prɪ'tend] [prɪ'tenʃən] {tendere , to extend}
■ prevent, preven(ta)tive, preventable, prevention [prɪ'vent] {venīre , to come}
■ previous, previously [via, way]
■ priest [pri:st]
■ prime, primary, primarily, primacy, primer, primal; primitive, primeval
■ prince/ princess, princely, princedom; principal, unprincipled, principally, principality, principle [prɪns]
■ process, processed, procession {cēdere , to go}
■ program ['proʊˏgræm, -grəm]/programme {graphein , to write}
■ progress ['pro'gres, -rəs, 'proʊ,gres], progressive, progressively, progression v. [prə'gres] {gradī , to go}
■ project, projector, projectionist, projectile ['prɒˏʤekt, -ɪkt] {iacere , to throw}
■ proper ['prɒpər]/ improper, properly/improperly, propriety/impropriety; property, propertyless, proprietor, propertied, proprietary [\prɒpərti:]
■ propose, proposal/counterpoposal, proposition, propositional, propositionally {poser, to put; pose, oppose, propose, suppose, expose, propose, purpose, compose, dispose}
■ protect [prə'tekt], protection, protective, protectionism, protector [prə'tekʃən] {tegere , to cover}
■ protest, protestant, protestation, protester [prə'test, proʊ-, 'proʊˏtest] {testārī, totestify }
■ provide, provided/ unprovided, providence/improvidence, provident/ improvident, providential, provision, provisional, provisionally; improvise, improvisation, improviser {vidēre to see}
psych, psyche, psychiatric, psychiatrist, psychic(al), psychological, psychologist, psychology, psychopath, psychosomatic [saɪk] ['saɪki] [saɪˈkɒlədʒɪ]
■ punch 1 { perhaps a variant of pounce}; punch 2 {Old French ponchoner, to emboss with a punch} punch 3 {From Hindi pañcāmr̥t, a mixture of milk, yogurt, ghee, sugar, and honey}
■ punish, unpunished, punishable, punishment, punitive ['pʌnɪʃ]
■ pupil 1 {Latin pūpillus, diminutive of pūpus, boy}; pupil 2 {Latin pūpilla, little doll, pupil of the eye (from the tiny image reflected in it) } ['pju:pəl]
■ pure/ impure, purity/impurity, purge, purgatory, purgative, purgation, purify, purification, purificatory, expurgate, expurgation, unexpurgated [pjʊr]
■ purple ['pɜ:rpəl]
■ purpose [ˈpɜːpəs]/multipurpose, purposeful, purposeless, purposely
■ purse
■ puzzle ['pʌzəl] , puzzled, puzzlement, puzzler

■ quality, qualify/disqualify, qualification/disqualification, qualified/ unqualified, qualifying, qualification, qualitative [ˈkwɒlɪtɪ]
■ quantity [ˈkwɒntɪtɪ], quantitative, quantum, quantify
■ quarrel [ˈkwɒrəl], quarrelling, quarrelsome
■ quit [kwɪt], quits; acquit, acquittal, acquittance
■ quote [kwoʊt]/ misquote, quotation/ misquotation, quotable

■ racket 1 {Arabic rāḥat, palm (of the hand)}; racket 2 {probably of imitative origin; compare rattle} ['rækɪt]
■ rage/outrage/ enrage, raging, outrageous
■ range/ arrange/ rearrange / prearrange /derange, ranger, rangy, arrangement, downrange, derangement
■ rank, ranking, ranker
■ rapid ['ræpɪd], rapidity, rapidly
■ rare 1 , rarity, rarely, rareness, rarefy, rarefied; {Latin rārus sparse} rare 2, raring {Old English hreaw raw} [reər]
■ rate/ underrate/ overrate/berate, rating, ration, rational/ irrational, rationally/irrationally, rationality/ irrationality, rationing, ratio; rationale, rationalize, ratiocinate, ratiocination

■ ray
■ raze, razor
■ rear 1 [rɪ(ə)r] , rearward, reaward(s), rear-most {Middle English rere, rear of an army, short for rerewarde, rear guard} rear 2 {Middle English reren, to raise}
■ recent ['ri:sənt], recently {kainos, new}
■ recognize ['rekəgˏnaɪz], recognition [,rekəg'nɪʃən]/ nonrecognition, recognizable/ unrecognizable, unrecognized {cognōscere , to get to know}
■ recover, recoverable {capere, to take} recover
■ reduce [rɪ'du:s, -'dju:s], reduction {dūcere , to lead}
■ refer [rɪ'fɜ:r], referral, reference, referee, referendum [,refə'rendəm] {ferre , to carry}
■ reflect [rɪ'flekt], reflection, reflectional, reflective, reflectively, reflector {flectere , to bend}
■ refuse [rɪ'fju:z] , refusal {fūtāre, to beat}
■ regard/ disregard, regarding, regardless, regardless [guard]
■ regime [reɪ'ʒi:m, rɪ-], regimen, regiment, regimentation, regimental, regimentals; region ['ri:ʤən], regional
■ register ['reʤɪstər], registered, registration, registry, registrar {gerere , to carry}
■ regret [rɪ'gret], regretful, regretfully, regrettable {greter , to weep}
■ regular ['regjələr]/ irregular, regularly/ irregularly, regularity/ irregularity, regulate ['regjə,leɪt], regulation
■ relate [rɪ'leɪt]/ interrelate, related/ interrelated/ unrelated, relatedness, relation/ interrelation, relationship/ interrelationship, relative, relativity; correlate, correlative, correlation {lātus , brought}
■ release [rɪ'li:s] {laxāre, to loosen}
■ rely, reliable/unreliable, reliably, reliability, reliant/self-reliant, reliantly, reliance/self-reliance; religion, religious/ irreligious, religiously, religiosity [rɪ'laɪ] [rɪ'laɪənt] [rɪ'lɪʤəs] {ligāre , to bind}
■ remain [rɪ'meɪn] , remainder, remains, remnant [rem nənt] {manēre , to remain}
render ['rendər], rendering, rendition;
■ rent, rental, renter
■ repair 1 / disrepair, reparable, irreparable, reparation {Latin re- + parāre, to prepare, put in order}; repaire 2 {Latin repatriāre, to return to one's country; see repatriate} [rɪ'peər]
■ report, reporter [French porter, to carry]
■ require [rɪ'kwaɪr], required, requirement {quaerere , to seek}
■ rescue ['reskju:], rescuer {escourre to shake}
■ respect, respectable, respected, respecter {specere , to look at; spectator, expect, inspect, retrospect, suspect, prospect, aspect}
■ respond/ correspond, response, responsibility/ irresposiblity, responsible/ irresponsible, responsibly, responsive, respondent, respondent [rɪ'spɒnd] {spondēre, to promise}
■ restore, restoration [store]
■ reward, rewarding, unrewarding {warder, to guard} {warder, to guard}
■ rhythm [ˈrɪðəm], rhythmic(al) [ˈrɪðmɪk]
■ rib, ribbed
■ rid, riddance
■ ridicule ['rɪdɪˏkju:l] , ridiculous [rɪˈdɪkjʊləs], ridicuousness, ridiculously; deride, derision, derisive, derisory
■ rifle [ˈraɪfəl]
■ risk, risky, risque
■ rob, robber, robbery
■ romance [roʊ'mæns, 'roʊˏmæns], romancer, romantic, romanticism, romanticist, romanticize
■ root [ru:t, rʊt]/ uproot, rooter, rootlet, rootless
■ rope, ropey
■ rough [rʌf], roughage, roughness, roughen, roughly
■ row 1 [roʊ] {Lithuanian raiwe strip}; row 2 [roʊ], rower, rowing; {Latin rēmus oar} row 3 [raʊ] {origin unknown}
■ rub, rubber, rubberize, rubberized; rubbish, rubbishy
■ rug, rugged
■ ruin ['ru:ɪn], ruin, ruinous [ˈruːɪnəs], ruination [,ru: ən'eɪʃən]
■ rumor ['ru:mər]
■ rush 1 {Anglo-Norman russher, to drive back}; rush 2 {Norwegian rusk, twig, rod}

■ sake, forsake
■ salad ['sæləd]/ coleslaw
■ salary ['sæləri, 'sælri], salaried/ unsalaried
■ sandwich ['sændwɪʧ, 'sænwɪdʒ, ˈsænwɪdʒ, -wɪtʃ]
■ satisfy ['sætɪsˏfaɪ]/ dissatisfy, satisfying/ unsatisfying, satisfaction [,sætɪs'fækʃən]/ dissatisfaction, satisfactory/ unsatisfactory, unsatisfied/ dissatisfied
■ sausage ['sɔ:sɪʤ]
■ saw 1 {Latin secāre to cut, secūris axe}; saw 2 {Old English sagu, speech} {sɔ:} saw 3 {см. see}
■ scandal ['skændl], scandalize, scandalous ['skændləs]
■ scare [skeər], scary
■ scene [si:n], scenery ['si:nəri:], scenic, scenically, scenario
■ schedule ['skeʤu:l, 'skeʤu:l u:əl, 'skeʤəl], unscheduled
■ science ['saɪəns] , scientific [,saɪən'tɪfɪk] , scientifically, scientist; conscience, conscienceless, conscientiousness, conscious ['kоnʃəns]/semiconscious/subconscious/ unconscious, consciously/semiconsciously, consciousness, consciously, consciousness; omniscient [ɒm'nɪʃənt]
■ scissors ['sɪzərz]
■ score [skɔ:r, skoʊr], scoreless
■ scout [skaʊt]
■ scrape, scraper / skyscraper
■ scratch, scratchy
■ screen
■ screw/ unscrew, screwy
■ scribe, ascribable, scribe/ inscribe /proscribe / prescribe /describe/ ascribe/circumscribe, inscription/ ascription / prescription/description, transcribe; script/ transcript/ postscript/ conscript/ nondescript, proscription; scripture, scriptural, unscripted, scribble; description, descriptive, indescribable, [dɪs'kraɪb]
■ season, seasoned / unseasoned, seasonable, seasonal, seasoning ['si:zən]
■ sect, sectarion, sectarianism, section ['sekʃən]/ subsection, sectional, sector, bisect/ trisect; dissect, dissection
■ secure [sɪ'kjʊr] / insecure, security [sɪ'kjʊrɪti:] / insecurity
■ seek, seeker, forsake
■ senior ['si:njər]; senile, senility, senescent, senescence
■ sentence ['sentəns], sententious, sententiousness
■ separate [adj. 'sepərɪt,'seprɪt, v. 'sepəˏreɪt], separable/ inseparable, inseparability, separation, separatist, separator
■ sergeant [ˈsɑːdʒənt]
■ serial ['sɪ(ə)ri:əl], series, seriatim, serialize ['sɪ(ə)ri:z]
■ settle, resettle, resettlement, unsettle, settlement, settler, unsettled, unsettling
■ sew [soʊ] , sewing
■ share
■ shark
■ sheep, sheepish
■ shell
■ sheriff [ˈʃerɪf]
■ shit
■ shore [ʃɔ:r, ʃoʊr], ashore/ inshore /off-shore
■ shower ['ʃaʊər], showery
■ sigh [saɪ]
■ silk, silky, silken
■ similar ['sɪmələr]/dissimilar, similarity [,sɪmə'lærɪti:]/ dissimilarity, similarly, simile, similitude
■ sin, sinful, sinfulness
■ sincere [sɪn'sɪər]/insincere, sincerely, sincerity / insincerity
■ sink [sɪŋk], unsinkable, sinker
■ skate 1 , skater, skating; {Old French éschasse stilt} skate 2 [Old Norse skati] 3 slang US a person; fellow {from Scottish and northern English dialect skate, a derogatory term of uncertain origin}■ ski [ski:], skier, skiing
■ skill, skilled/unskilled, skilful/unskilful, skilfully
■ skip, skipper
■ slam, slammer
■ slap
■ slave, slavish, slavery, slaver; enslave, enslavement, enslaver
■ slide (slid), sliding
■ slight [slaɪt], slighting; slight ; slightly
■ slip, slipper, slippery

■ smart, smartness, smarten
■ smash, smashing
■ smooth [smu:ð], smoothly
■ snap, snappy, snappish
■ sock 1 {Greek sunkhis, sukkhos, shoe}; sock 2 {Origin unknown}
■ sofa ['soʊfə]
■ solid ['solɪd], solidly, solidarity
■ solve [solv, sɔ:lv]/dissolve, solvable ['solvəbəl, 'sɔ:l-]/resolve, unsolved, insolvent, insolvency, solvent/dissolvent, solvency; solute/dissolute, solution/dissolution, insoluble, insolubility, dissoluteness, unresolved
■ source [sɔ:rs, soʊrs]/resource, resourceful, resourcefulness
■ spare, sparing/ unsparing
■ spark, spark, sparkle, sparkling, sparkler
■ spectacle [ˈspektəkəl], spectacular, spectator, bespectacled, respect/disrespect; inspect/introspect, inspection, perspective [pər'spektɪv]/irrespective, introspectively, introspectiveness, introspection, introspective, irrespectiveness; retrospect, retrospective, retrospection
■ spider ['spaɪdər] , spidery
■ spin, spinning, spinster, spindle
■ spirit ['spɪrɪt]/ dispirit, spirited, dispirited, spiritual, spiritual, spiritualism, spiritualist
■ split, splitting, splitter [splice]
■ spread [spred], outspread, spreading
■ spy [spaɪ], spying; espy, espionage/ counterespionage
■ squeeze [skwi:z], squeezer
■ squirrel ['skwɜ:rəl, 'skwʌr-]
■ stable/unstable, stabilize ['steɪbə,laɪz], stabilizer, stabilization, stability, instability; establish [ɪ'stæblɪʃ]/ re-establish/ disestablish, established/old-established, establishment/re-establishment; constable, constabulary; stable 2, stabling
■ staff, overstaff, understaffed
■ stake
■ stance [stæns], circumstance, circumstantial, circumstancial; substance, insubstantial, substantially, substantiate, substantive, unsubstantiated
■ startle [start], startling ['stɑ:rtl]
■ stiff, stiffen, stiffly, stiffness
■ sting, stinging, stingy, stingily, stingeness
■ stock/overstock, stocking, stocky, stockiest, stockade
■ stomach ['stʌmək]
■ storm, stormy
■ strain 1 {Middle English streinen, to bind tightly}, strained, strainer; strain 2 {Old English strēon, something gained, progeny}
■ stretch, outstretched, stretchable, stretchability, stretcher
■ strict, strictly, strictness, stricture; restrict, derestrict, derestriction
■ strip, outstrip
■ stroll [stroʊl]
■ structure [ˈstrʌktʃə], structural, construct [kən'strʌkt]/reconstruct, construction / misconstruction, construe/ misconstrue; destroy, destroyer, destruction, destructive, destructiveness

■ struggle ['strʌgəl]
■ stupid ['stu:pɪd, 'stju:-], stupidly, stupidness, stupidity [stu:'pɪdɪ-ti:, stju:-], stupefy, stupefied, stupefaction, stupendous, stupor
■ subject [n. 'sʌbʤɪkt, v. səb'ʤekt], subjective {iacere, to throw}
■ succeed [sək'si:d], succeeding; success [sək'ses], successful, unsuccessful, succession, successional, successionally, successive, successor {cēdere , to go}
■ suck, sucker, suckle, suckling, suction
■ suffer ['sʌfər], sufferance, sufferer, suffering, insufferable, insufferableness {ferre , to carry}
■ suffice [səˈfaɪs, -ˈfaɪz] , sufficient [səˈfɪʃənt]/ insufficient, sufficiency/ insufficiency {facere , to make}
■ suicide [ˈsuːɪˌsaɪd; ˈsjuː-], suicidal [ˌsuːɪˈsaɪdəl; ˌsjuː-]{cīdium , caedere to kill}
■ suit [su:t, sjuːt], suitable/unsuitable, suitably, suitability, suitor, unsuited
■ sum, summarize, summary, summarily
■ super ['su:pər], superiority, insuperable, insuperability, superb, superbly, superbness, supercilious, superciliously, superciliousness, superficial, superficially, superficiality, supreme, supremacy, superior [sʊ'pɪ(ə)ri:ər]
■ support, supporter, supporting, supportive, unsupported {portāre , to carry}
■ surrender
● surround, surrounding, surroundings {undāre, to rise in waves }
■ survive, survival, survivor {vīvere, to live; vivid, revive}
■ suspect, suspicion, suspicious, suspiciously, suspiciousness, unsuspected, unsuspecting [sə'spekt] v . n. ['sʌs,pekt] adj. ['sʌ,spekt, sə'spekt] [sə'spɪʃən] {specere , to look at; spectāre, to look at; spectator, expect, inspect, respect, retrospect, prospect, aspect}
■ swallow 1 [svalg gullet]; swallow 2 [ˈswɒləʊ] {Old Norse svala }
■ sweat, sweater, sweaty
■ sweep, sweeper, sweeping
■ swine, swinish
■ swing, swinging

■ tale
■ talent ['tælənt], talented / untalented
■ tap 1 , untapped; {Old French taper, of imitative origin}; tap 2 {Old English tæppa, tapered peg used as a stopper}
■ tape
■ target ['tɑ:rgɪt]
■ tease [ti:z], teasing, teaser
■ temper ['tempər] / distemper, temperate/intemperate, temperately, temperament, temperamental, temperature, temperance/intemperance ['tempərɪt, 'temprɪt] ['tempər-ə-,ʧʊr, -ʧər, 'temprə-]
■ tend 1 / intend/superintend, tendentious, tendentiousness, tendency; {Latin tendere to stretch} tend 2/attend, unintended, unintentional; {variant of attend} tender 1, tender 2
■ term, terminable, terminal, terminate, termination, terminology, terminus; determine, determinate/indeterminate, determined, determinant, determination; , determinacy/indeterminacy; predetermine, predetermination; exterminate , extermination
■ terrain, terrene, subterranean, territory, territorial, terrestrial, terrier, terrace ['terɪs] ['terɪˏtɔ:ri:, -ˏtoʊri:] ['teri:ər]
■ test, detest
■ text/ pretext/ subtext, textual, textile, texture
■ thief thieve thieving thievery thievish theft
■ thirst, thirsty
■ thorough ['θɜ:roʊ, 'θʌroʊ], thoroughly, thoroughness
■ thread [θred]
■ threat [θret], threaten, threatening
■ thumb [θʌm]
■ thunder ['θʌndər], thundering, thunderous, thundery
■ thus
■ tide/betide, , tidal, tidings; tidy/ untidy, tidily, tidiness
■ tight [taɪt]/ uptight, tights, tightly, tighten/ retighten
■ tip 1 {Middle High German zipf tip}; tip 2 {Middle English typen to upset, overturn}; tip 3
■ title [ˈtaɪtəl]/subtitle, titled, entitle, entitlement
■ toast [toʊst], toaster
■ toilet ['tɔɪlɪt], toiletries
■ tomato
■ tomb [tu:m]/ entomb
■ ton [tʌn]/megaton, tonnage
■ tone/ overtone/ undertone/intone, tonal/atonal; intonation; monotone, monotonous, monotony [mə'nɒtnəs]
■ topic ['tɒpɪk], topical
■ torture ['tɔ:rʧər], tortuous
■ toss [tɔ:s, tɒs]
■ tour [tʊr], tourism, tourist; entourage
■ trace/retrace, tracer, tracing, tracery, traceable/untraceable
■ track
■ trade, trading, trader
■ tradition [trə'dɪʃən], traditional
■ traffic ['træfɪk]
■ tragedy, tragedian, tragic, tragedienne ['træʤɪdi]
■ trail, trailer
■ translate/mistranslate, translation/mistranslation, translator ['trænsˏleɪt, 'trænz-, træns'leɪt, trænz-]
v {lātus , brought}
■ trap/ entrap, trappings
■ trash, trashy
■ tray, entray
■ treasure ['treʒər], treasurer, treasury ['treʒəri]
■ tremble ['trembəl], trembling
■ triumph ['traɪəmf], triumphant
■ troop [tru:p]/ paratroops, trooper
■ tube, tubeless, tuber, tubular, tuba
■ twist twister
■ tyre/tire [taɪr]

■ ugly ['ʌgli], ugliness
■ upset,upsetting
■ urge [ɜ:rʤ], urgent, urgently, urgency .

■ vacant ['veɪkənt], vacancy, vacate, vacation, vacuous, vacuously, vacuousness, vacuity, vacuum; evacuate, evacuator, evacuation, evacuee ['vækju:əs] ['vækju:ə, -yu:m, -jəm] [ɪ'vækju:-,eɪt]
■ vague [veɪg], vaguely, vagueness
■ valley ['væli]
■ value ['vælju:]/ revalue/ devalue/ undervalue, valued, valuable / invaluable, valuables, valuation/revaluation / devaluation / undervaluation, valueless, valuer; evaluate, evaluation ['vælju:əbəl, 'væljə-] [,vælju:'eɪʃə n] [ɪ'veɪlju:-,eɪt]
■ vanish ['vænɪʃ], vanity
■ vary ['veəri, 'væri], varying, varyingly, varied/ unvaried, variable/ invariable, variably/ invariably, variability, variance, variety, various, variously, variation, variant, variegate, variegated ['vâri:əbəl, 'vær-] [,vâri:ə'bɪlɪti, .vær-] [və'raɪɪti:] ['vâri:- ə s , 'vær-]
■ vase [veɪs, veɪz, vɑ:z]
■ vegetable ['veʤtəbəl, 'veʤɪtə-], vegetate, vegetation, vegetarian [,veʤɪ'târi:ən]
■ vehicle [ˈviːɪkəl], vehicular
■ verge [vɜ:rʤ]
■ vice 1 , vicious, viciousness, vicissitudes; {Latin vitium a defect} vice 2 {Latin vītis vine, plant with spiralling tendrils (hence the later meaning)}; vice 3 {Latin vicis interchange, alternation}
■ victim ['vɪktɪm], victimize, victimization
victor, victory ['vɪktəri], victorious [vɪk'tɔ:ri:əs, -'toʊr-]
■ virgin ['vɜ:rʤɪn], virginity [vər'ʤɪnɪti]
■ vivid ['vɪvɪd], vividly, vividness, vivacious, vivacity, viviparous, revive, revival
■ vocal ['voʊkəl], vocabulary [voʊ'kæbjə.leri:], vocalist, vocally, vocation, vocational, vocative, vocabulary; equivocal [ɪ'kwɪvə-kəl]/unequivocal, equivocate, equivocation; avocation, irrevocable, irrevocability; evoke, invoke, invocation; convoke, convocation; provoke, provocation, unprovoked, provoking, provocation, provocative
■ void, devoid
■ volume ['vɒlju:m, -jəm], voluminous [və'lu:mənəs], volumetric
■ vulgar ['vʌlgər], vulgarness, vulgarism, vulgarity, vulgarize
■ wagon ['wægən]
■ waist
■ wallet ['wɒlɪt]
■ wander ['wɒndər], wandering(s), wanderer
■ ware 1 {Old English waru, goods}; ware 2 /beware, wariness, aware / unaware, awareness {Old English warian; see wary}
■ weal [wiːl], wealth [welθ], wealthy
■ weapon, weaponry ['wepən]
■ web/ webbed, webbing
■ weep, weeping, weepy, weepie
■ weird [wɪ(ə)rd], weirdness
■ whale, whaler [hweɪl, weɪl]
■ wheat [hwi:t, wi:t]
■ whip, whipping, whippet ] [wɪp]
■ whiskey (whisk) ['wɪski: ]
■ whoa [hwoʊ, woʊ]
■ widow ['wɪdoʊ], widower
■ wink
■ wipe, wipe, wiper
■ wire [waɪr], wire, wiring, wiry, wireless
■ wise 1 / unwise, wisely, wiseness, wisdom, wizard, wizardy; {Gothic -weis akin to wit} wise 2 {Greek eîdos form, shape}
■ wit 1 / outwit, witty, wittiness, witticism, wittingly/ unwittingly; witness {Old High German wizzi} wit 2 {Latin vidēre, to see}
■ witch/ bewitch, bewitching
■ wool [wʊl] , woolen, wooly
■ worth [wɜ:rθ] , worthy/unworthy, worthless
■ wound 1 [wu:nd] , wounded, wounding; wound 2 {см. wind}
■ wrap [ræp] / unwrap, wrapping, wrapper
■ wrist ['rɪst], wristlet

■ yacht [jɑ:t] , yachting
■ yawn [jɔ:n] , yawning
■ yell
■ yonder, beyond