Урок 9. Описание действий в прошлом

Практический курс английского языка (часть 2-я)

Урок 9. Описание действий в прошлом

Сообщение Admin » 05 апр 2012, 12:27

Так же, как при описании действий в настоящем (когда необходимо выбрать между простым настоящим и продолженным настоящим грамматическими временами), при описании действий в физическом прошлом важно правильно выбрать грамматическое время. Два основных варианта – простое прошедшее и совершенное настоящее (есть еще возможности, которые мы обсудим несколько позже).

Если событие в прошлом, с вашей точки зрения, напрямую не связано с настоящим, необходимо употреблять простое прошедшее. Если же вы считаете, что связь с настоящим есть и действие привело к определенному результату, который сейчас ощущается – необходимо употреблять совершенное настоящее. Повторимся, что необходимо привыкнуть к тому, что хотя в первом случае используется грамматическое прошедшее время, а во втором – грамматическое настоящее, в обоих случаях речь идет о событиях в прошлом.

He bought a car он купил машину (когда-то в прошлом – смысловой упор на факте покупки).
He has bought a car он купил машину (купил совсем недавно, и теперь может на ней ездить – смысловой упор на том, что теперь у него есть машина).

Разумеется, это все достаточно индивидуально и иногда можно употребить и то и другое время с примерно одинаковым смыслом.

ЗАДАНИЕ

Придумайте свои пары предложений (для обоих типов времен) с какими-нибудь из этих глаголов:

come (came-come) приходить, arrive (arrived-arrived) прибывать.

read (read-read) читать, write (wrote-written) писать, buy (bought-bought) покупать, sell (sold-sold) steal (stole-stolen) красть, break (broke-broken) ломать, eat (ate-eaten) есть, drink (drank-drunk) пить, lose (lost-lost) терять, find (found-found) находить, see (saw-seen) видеть.

She lost her bag – she has lost her bag она потеряла свою сумку, Jack came here – Jack has come here Джек пришел сюда, I saw Jack - I have seen Jack я видел Джека и т.п.

Важно помнить, что с совершенным настоящим нельзя употреблять обстоятельства, относящиеся к прошлому (yesterday, 5 years ago, 10 minutes ago, in 2005 и т.п.) так в этом случае потерялась бы связь между прошлым и настоящим, а в этом суть этого грамматического времени. Употребляйте такие обстоятельства только с простым прошедшим временем – I sold my car 5 years ago я продал свою машину пять лет назад, I saw Jack yesterday я видел Джека вчера и т.п.

С формами глагола в настоящем совершенном можно употреблять наречия already (уже) и just (только что), которые чаще всего ставятся после вспомогательного глагола – I have already finished my work я уже закончил мою работу, I have just found my bag я только что нашел свою сумку (just можно употреблять и с простым прошедшим – I just found my bag).
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Re: УРОК 7 (Действия в прошлом)

Сообщение sasha2010-al » 13 апр 2012, 12:36

Simple past

I read my book yesterday
My Dad wrote a letter for me.
He bought milk 15 minutes ago.
We sold red wine.
She stole his gold coins.
I broke my pencil.
You ate a cherry yesterday.
They drank juice.
We lost a cat in forest.
He found her cat.
I saw it yesterday.

perfect present

I have already read my book.
My Dad has just written a letter.
He has bought milk.
We have sold red wine.
She has stolen his gold coins.
I have broken my pencil.
You have eaten a cherry.
They have drunk juice.
We have lost a cat here in 2009 year.
He has found her cat in 2010 year.
I have seen it one year ago.
Life isn't about waiting for the storm to pass... It's about learning to dance in the rain!
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Re: УРОК 7 (Действия в прошлом)

Сообщение Frog Jamas » 13 апр 2012, 20:06

sasha2010-al писал(а):Simple past

We lost a cat in forest.

perfect present

We have lost a cat here in 2009 year.
He has found her cat in 2010 year.
I have seen it one year ago.



Simple past

We lost a cat in the forest.

perfect present

We have lost a cat here in 2009 year.
He has found her cat in 2010 year.
I have seen it one year ago.

A year is never '123 year', it's 'the year 123'.
In conversation you would rarely say 'in the year 123', you would just say 'in 123'.

Without the time, this is ok:
We have lost a cat here.
He has found her cat.
I have seen it.

To say when it happened, it doesn't sound correct like this:
We have lost a cat here in the year 2009.
He has found her cat in the year 2010.
I have seen it one year ago.

Much better to say:
We lost a cat here in 2009.
He found her cat in 2010.
I saw it one year ago. OR last year

Saying "I have seen it, one year ago" with the comma would be ok if someone asked, "has anyone seen it?"

Almost always, for 'have' as in I have, they have, we have, people will use I've, they've, we've.

Changing to have or has doesn't always sound best.

You are doing very well, Sasha)
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Re: УРОК 7 (Действия в прошлом)

Сообщение sasha2010-al » 13 апр 2012, 20:19

Thanks!=)
Life isn't about waiting for the storm to pass... It's about learning to dance in the rain!
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Re: УРОК 7 (Действия в прошлом)

Сообщение lennagazala » 22 янв 2013, 20:40

Anna came in the park.- She has come in the garden.
Train arrived at the station.-Bus has arrived to a stop.
First he read a newspaper – He has just read a letter.
Yesterday I wrote a letter. – A news reporter has already written an article in the journal.
Last month Jill bought a new red dress.-We have bought a new home.
She sold fruits in the shop. –Woman has sold vegetables on the market.
Thief stole gold jewelry. - Plunderer has stolen a car.
Yesterday the child broke new toy. –Just he has broken the car.
I ate a pizza for breakfast. – We have already eaten soup and spaghetti.
Yesterday I drank brandy –Just they have drunk a tea.
My mother lost a glasses.- A boy has lost his favorite toy.
You found money. –I have found flowers in the park.
He saw the bright stars at night. – I have already seen this film.
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Re: УРОК 7 (Действия в прошлом)

Сообщение lennagazhala » 22 янв 2013, 21:40

Anna came in the park.- She has come in the garden.
Train arrived at the station.-Bus has arrived to a stop.
First he read a newspaper – He has just read a letter.
Yesterday I wrote a letter. – A news reporter has already written an article in the journal.
Last month Jill bought a new red dress.-We have bought a new home.
She sold fruits in the shop. –Woman has sold vegetables on the market.
Thief stole gold jewelry. - Plunderer has stolen a car.
Yesterday the child broke new toy. –Just he has broken the car.
I ate a pizza for breakfast. – We have already eaten soup and spaghetti.
Yesterday I drank brandy –Just they have drunk a tea.
My mother lost a glasses.- A boy has lost his favorite toy.
You found money. –I have found flowers in the park.
He saw the bright stars at night. – I have already seen this film.
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Re: УРОК 7 (Действия в прошлом)

Сообщение edik » 22 янв 2013, 22:55

lennagazhala писал(а):Anna came in the park.- She has come in the garden.
Train arrived at the station.-Bus has arrived to a stop.
First he read a newspaper – He has just read a letter.
Yesterday I wrote a letter. – A news reporter has already written an article in the journal.
Last month Jill bought a new red dress.-We have bought a new home.
She sold fruits in the shop. –Woman has sold vegetables on the market.
Thief stole gold jewelry. - Plunderer has stolen a car.
Yesterday the child broke new toy. –Just he has broken the car.
I ate a pizza for breakfast. – We have already eaten soup and spaghetti.
Yesterday I drank brandy –Just they have drunk a tea.
My mother lost a glasses.- A boy has lost his favorite toy.
You found money. –I have found flowers in the park.
He saw the bright stars at night. – I have already seen this film.


Anna came to the park, she has come to the garden.
... bought a new house.
He has just broken...
My mother lost her glasses.
They have just drunk...
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