Инфинитив (The Infinitive)

Non-finite Verbs

Инфинитив (The Infinitive)

Сообщение Admin » 12 мар 2011, 13:47

Инфинитив/ Infinitive – неличная форма глагола, обозначающее действие, но не зависящая по форме ни от числа, ни от лица. Здесь важно, что именно форма инфинитива не зависит от лица, в то время как действие, которое он обозначает может прямо относиться к тому или иному лицу.

Инфинитив имеет все четыре основные временные формы.

to work - to be working - to have worked - to have been working

Все формы инфинитива можно получить, «обезличивая» грамматические времена (т.е заменяя первый глагол – только он является личным в глагольной группе – на базовую форму):

drive/drives/drove → to drive
am/is/are/was/were driven → to be driven

am/is/are/was/were driving → to be driving
am/is/are/was/were being driven → to be being driven

have/has/had driven → to have driven
have/has/had been driven → to have been driven


have/has/had been driving → to have been driving
have/has/had been being driven → to have been being driven

(формы, выделенные курсивом, обычно не употребляются)

ПРОСТАЯ ФОРМА

to work

Инфинитив выражает действие:

1. Происходящее одновременно с действием, выраженным глаголом в личной форме
I am glad to see you я рад вас видеть.
2. Происходящее безотносительно ко времени его совершения.

To swim is pleasant плавать приятно.

3. Относящееся к будущему времени. Инфинитив в этих случаях употребляется после модальных глаголов may, must, should, ought и после таких глаголов как expect (ожидать), intend (намереваться), hope (надеяться), want (хотеть). Например:

I hope to see him at the show я надеюсь увидеть его на концерте.

● Инфинитив в простом времени имеет форму пассивного залога.

The boy was nowhere to be seen мальчика не было видно.

ПРОДОЛЖЕННАЯ ФОРМА

to be working

Инфинитив в форме продолженного времени используется для обозначения длительного действия, одновременного с действием, выраженным глаголом в личной форме. Например:

I don't want to be sitting here all day я не хочу сидеть здесь весь день.
The weather seems to be improving погода, кажется, улучшается.

• Инфинитив в продолженном времени не употребляется в пассивном залоге.

СОВЕРШЕННАЯ ФОРМА

to have worked

Инфинитив в форме совершенного времени употребляется:

1. Когда обозначаемое им действие предшествует действию, выраженному глаголом в личной форме. Например:

Не seems to have finished his work он, кажется, закончил свою paботу.

2. После модальных глаголов must и may для выражения предположения о том, что действие уже совершилось. Например:

She must have forgotten about it она, наверное, забыла об этом.
I don't know where she is. She may have gone to Paris Я не знаю, где она. Возможно, уехала в Париж.

3. После модальных глаголов should, would, could, might ought и was (were) для обозначения действия, которое должно было или могло совершиться, но в действительности не совершилось. Например:

Не should have gone there ему следовало пойти туда (но он не пошел)
You could have helped him вы могли бы помочь ему (но не помогли).
He was to have come yesterday он должен был придти вчера (но не пришел).

4. После прошедшего времени глаголов intend, hope, expect, mean для обозначения действия, которое, вопреки намерению, надежде, ожиданию, не совершилось. Например:

I intended to have finished my work я намеревался закончить свою работу (но не закончил).
I hoped to have met him there я надеялся, что встречу его там (но не встретил).

● Инфинитив в совершенном времени имеет форму пассивного залога. Например:

He is said to have been appointed director of a big factory говорят, что он назначен директором большой фабрики.

ПРОДОЛЖЕННАЯ СОВЕРШЕННАЯ ФОРМА

to have been working

Инфинитив в форме продолженного времени используется для обозначения длительного действия, совершавшегося в течении отрезка времени, предшествовавшего действию, выраженному глаголом в личной форме.

He is known to have been working on this problem for many years известно, что он работает над этой проблемой в течение многих лет.

● Инфинитив в продолженном совершенном времени не употребляется в пассивном залоге.

Инфинитив может употребляться

б) без частицы to: she let him [/b]go[/b]
а) с частицей to: she wanted to go

● В устной речи может употребляться «разбитый» инфинитив (split infinitive), когда наречие ставится между частицей и самим инфинитивом:

I'd like to really understand philosophy.
He began to slowly get up off the floor.

Многие считают это грамматически неправильным.
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Инфинитив без частицы to

Сообщение Admin » 12 мар 2011, 14:24

Инфинитив без частицы to употребляется после

а) модальных глаголов will, shall, would, should, can, could, may,
might и must:

I must go now. (NOT I must to go now.)
Can you help me?
Do you think she might be joking?
I would rather go alone.
She will probably be elected.

Так же инфинитив употребляется после сочетаний had better had better/ had rather/had best, would sooner, might (just) as well и глаголов need и dare, когда они используются как модальные:

You'd better see what she wants.
We'd better try again (= I think we should…)
Better (You'd better) try again.
You'd best try again. (had best – устаревшая форма)
I'd rather/sooner stop now. (= I’d prefer to stop now)
We might (just) as well walk.
She needn't do the washing up.
I daren't go out at night.

Но to-infinitive употребляется после ought: I feel we ought to accept the proposal.

● отрицание такими выражениями может быть только с инфинитивом:

We'd better not stop.
I'd rather not wait.
We might (just) as well not have a car at all,

b) сочетания let's (в формальной речи Let us)

Let's go (I suggest we go).

Отрицание с let’s выражается так: Let's not go (в разговорной речи может быть ‘Don't let's go ')

' Let us is not contractable to let's when let means allow. Note that the infinitive, when it is monosyllabic, can come immediately after let and before a comparatively long object, as in He let slip a very unfortunate remark.

с) глаголов let и make (выражающие разрешение и принуждение)

Let go (of that rope). Don't let go (of my hand).
We must make do (= manage) (with what we've got).

После help может употребляться инфинитив без частицы to

Coffee helped keep him alert.
Will you help carry this trunk?

(частица to отсутствует в сочетании hear + tell, иногда употребляемом при рассказе: I never heard tell of it; men have heard tell of a strange land far away to the west)

d) глаголов let (разрешать) и make (заставлять) + object:

She lets her children stay up very late (не ‘She lets her children to stay...’/’She lets her children staying ...’)
Please let us (= allow us to) go with you.'
Don't make me laugh.
I made them give me the money back.

(если смысл понятен из контекста, инфинитив после таких сочетаний может опускаться: Please let us. Don't make me)

● Так же может можно употреблять have и help (особенно в американском английском):

Could you help me (to) unload the car?
Have Mrs Hansen come in, please.
I'll have you know I'm the boss here (разговорно).

С инфинитивом без частицы to употребляется также глагол know (но как правило в совершенном времени) и глагол bid (в старомодном стиле):

I've never known him (to) pay for a drink.
We have/had never known him lose his temper before.
The knight bade the traveller enter.

Но в пассиве во всех этих случаях частица to употребляется:

He was made to resign.
He was made to pay back the money.
She was heard to say that she disagreed.
He has never been known to lose his temper.

e) глаголов see, hear, feel, watch и notice:

I didn't see you come in.
We both heard him say that I was leaving.
Did you feel the earth move?

f) в вопросах и предложения что-либо сделать могут быть в форме why (not) + infinitive:

Why worry?
Why not relax?
Why pay more at other shops? We have the lowest prices.
Why stand up if you can sit down?
Why sit down if you can lie down?
You're looking tired. Why not take a holiday?

g) после rather than (вместо инфинитива может быть и герундий):

Let's finish the job now rather than leave/leaving it till tomorrow.
Rather than wait any more, I decided to go home by taxi.


h) после and, or, except, but, than, as и like. Когда два инфинитива соединены союзами and, or. except, but, than, as или like, второй инфинитив часто употребляется без to.

I'd like to lie down and go to sleep.
Do you want to have lunch now or wait till later?
We had nothing to do except look at the cinema posters.
I'm ready to do anything but work on a farm.
It's easier to do it yourself than explain to somebody else how to do it.
It's as easy to smile as frown.
I have to feed the animals as well as look after the children.
Why don't you do something useful like clean the flat?

i) после do

После таких выражений с do как all I did was, what I do is инфинитив можно употреблять без частицы to:

All I did was (to) give him a little push.
What a fire-door does is (to) delay the spread of a fire.
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Функции инфинитива (1)

Сообщение Admin » 12 мар 2011, 14:25

Инфинитив может играть роль подлежащего, комплемента и дополнения.
Он может заменять that-clause в следующих примерах:

I hope that I'll be able to come.
I hope to be able to come.

We consider that he is very trustworthy.
We consider him to be very trustworthy.

We thought it wrong that he should be punished.
We thought it wrong to punish him.

(при этом такая замена возможна не со всеми глаголами и только в том случае, если и личный глагол и инфинитив имеют общее подлежащее и относятся к одному и тому же времени)

Subject

a) Инфинитив может играть роль подлежащего:

To hesitate is fatal/a pity.
To practise regularly is important.
To wait for people who were late made him angry.

Но в современном английском обычно в таких случаях употребляется предварительное it:

It is fatal/a pity to hesitate.
It was good/a great pleasure to see you.
It's important to practise regularly.
It made him angry to wait for people who were late.

В начале предложения может лучше звучать герундий:

Selling insurance is a pretty boring job (более естественно, чем To sell insurance ... )

Complement

1) Инфинитив может употребляться в роли комплемента подлежащего:

The main thing is to relax.
It's nice to talk to you.
Your mistake was to write him that letter.
Your task is to get across the river without being seen.
My ambition was to retire at thirty.

Есть разница между:

Your mistake was not to write that letter. (You failed to write)
Your mistake was not to write a letter but to write so rudely. (You did write: your mistake was to write rudely)

Избежать двусмысленности может так:

Your mistake was not so much to write a letter as to write so rudely.

● В таких предложениях может употребляться предварительное it:

It is your task to get across the river without being seen.
It was my ambition to retire at thirty.

● После глагола-связки be to-infinitive может обозначать будущее действие или состояние:

The best item on the programme is still to come.
If we are to win this match, we must all do our very best.
It was 1491. Columbus was to reach America a year later.
The Prime Minister is to speak on television this evening
I don't know what is to happen to us.

Такая же конструкция выражает и приказ или запрещение: You are (not) to stand here.

Инфинитив употребляется и с другими глаголами-связками:

He grew (up)/came/got (informal) to be rather selfish.

2) Инфинитив часто употребляется в роли комплемента прилагательного или существительного:

I'm anxious to contact your brother.
You have the right to remain silent.

Object

a) Инфинитив может выражать идею «чего-либо, что скоро случится»:

I hope to see you this evening/be invited to the party.

В предложении ‘I hope to see’ подлежащее глаголов hope и see одно и то же: I hope that I will see.

See в ‘I hope to see’ относится к будущему, которое видится из настоящего, в то время как see в ‘I hoped to see’ относится к будущему, которое видится из прошлого.
Если подлежащие глаголов hope и see разные, или глагол hope в форме настоящего времени, а see относится к прошлому, что конструкцию hope to see употреблять нельзя и вместо этого следует сказать:

I hope (that) you will see him this evening.
(возможно также употреблять present tense в придаточном предложении после hope: ‘I hope you see him this evening’).

Или:

I hope (that) I/you saw the right man.

● Инфинитив в таких предложениях может быть в совершенной форме и обозначать совершившиеся к какому-либо моменту действие:

I hope/expect/promise (that) I will have read/=to have read this book by next Tuesday.


В таких конструкциях (that-clause/infinitive) можно употреблять hope, expect и promise, но не глагол want, который употребляется в несколько другой конструкции:

I want you to see him this evening.

e) После нескольких глаголов (например, LIKE, HATE, PREFER) to-infinitive обозначает не будущее время, а привычное действие:

I like to go for a walk on Sundays.
I hate to see you cry.
I prefer to go to bed early.

После этих глаголов может также употребляться герундий, когда акцент больше на саомм действии, чем на то, что оно привычно:

I like going for a walk = I am content when I am walking.

Если перед такими глаголами употребляется would, то последующий инфинитив обозначает будущее действие или состояние:

- Would you like to go for a walk?
- Yes, I would like to (go for a walk).

Употребление would have liked to выражает следующие временные отношения:

I would like (now) to see that film (now or later).
I would have liked (then, past) to see it (then).

I would like (now) to have seen it (before now).
I would have liked (then) to have seen it (before then).

● Употребление SEEM, APPEAR и HAPPEN с последующим to-инфинитивом отличается по смыслу от той же конструкции с hope. Например, предложениям He is ill. He is sleeping. He has been hurt. He was knocked down by a car можно придать менее утвердительный тон таким образом:

He seems/appears/happens to be ill
He seems/appears/happens to be sleeping.
He seems/appears/happens to have been hurt.
He seems/appears/happens to have been knocked down by a car.

Эти предложения можно перефразировать так:

It seems/appears/happens that he is ill.
It seems/appears/happens that he is sleeping.
It seems/appears/happens that he has been/was hurt.
It seems/appears/happens that he has been/was knocked down by a car.

В конструкциях типа I promise to go отрицание можно употреблять и с первым глаголом, и со вторым и с обоими:

The poor old widow can't afford to have a telephone.
I don't promise to see Mary again (so I may not see her).
I promise not/never to see her again (so I won't)
A busy doctor can't afford not to have a telephone.

● При коротких ответах в такой конструкции можно оставлять только частицу to:

- You mustn't see Mary again.
- I want to, but I promise not to.

Но be в таких случаях обычно остается:

- Are you on holiday today ?
- No, but I'd like to be.

- Have you been vaccinated?
- No, I don't want to be yet.

I want you to go
a) Ряд глаголов (want, tell и др.) употребляется в конструкции object + infinitive:

I want you to go to the party. I want you to.
I want you to be invited. I want you to be.
I didn't tell you to do that. I didn't tell you to.
I told you not to do that. I told you not to.

В этих примерах подлежащим глаголов want и tell является I, в то время как подлежащим инфинитивов является you.
Исключением является глагол PROMISE:
I promise (you) not to see her again (= I give the promise to you, and it is I who will not see her again).

С некоторыми из таких глаголов (например, want, allow) нельзя употреблять that-предложения:

She didn't want me to go. (неверно: She didn't want that I go.)
They don't allow people to smoke. (неверно: They don't allow that people smoke.)
I didn't ask you to pay for the meal. (неверно: I didn't ask that you pay for the
meal.)

● Глаголы EXPECT и WISH входят в число тех, которые употребляется в такой конструкции. Так же за ними может следовать that-clause.
При этом I expect (that) he'll come означает ‘I think he'll come’, а ‘I expect him to come может означать или I think he'll come' или 'My orders are that he should come'.

Похожим образом I wish he'd come означает желание, а I wish him to come – приказ.

● Есть разница в ответах в таких случаях:

- May I go out this evening?
- Yes, I'll allow you to go. I'll allow you (to).

- May I go out this evening?
- No, I'd hate you to go. I'd hate you to.

В первом случае частица to может быть опущена, что невозможно во втором ответе. Чтобы избежать ошибок можно руководствоваться правилом не опускать to в таких коротких ответах.

● Такую конструкцию можно комбинировать с оборотом There is:


I want there to be no mistake.

● Некоторые глаголы не могут употребляться с конструкцией object + infinitive, например, suggest:

I suggested that she should go home. (неверно: I suggested her to go home.)

В косвенных вопросах инфинитив может употребляться после wh-слов (но обычно не с
why) и whether:

Tell us what to do.
I don't know where to put the car.
Tell me when to pay.
I can't decide whether to answer her letter.

(неверно: I can’t understand why to do it.)

В таких случаях инфинитивный оборот соответствует wh-предложению:

I wonder who I should invite.)/=who to invite.
Can you show me how I can get to the
station?/ = how to get to the station?
I don't know what I should do/= what to do.
I don t know wno(m) I should ask/=who(m) to ask.
Can you tell me where I should go/=where to go?
I wonder when I should leave/=when to leave.
Tell me how I can start this car/=how to start this car
I haven't decided whether I shall sell it or not/=whether to sell it or not.
We must reach a decision (as to) whether we should sell/=whether to sell.

Если личный глагол и инфинитив имеют разные подлежащие или относятся к разному времени, то wh-предложение не может быть заменено на инфинитив (например, в предложениях: ‘I don't know what you should do’ или ‘I can't remember now whom I had to ask’.

● Прямые вопросы обычно не начинаются с How to ... ?, What to ... ? и т.п. В этом случае употребляют shall и should.

How shall I tell her? (неверно: How to tell her?)
What shall we do? (неверно: What to do?)
Who should I pay? (неверно: Who to pay?)

● Но How to ... , What to ... и т.п. часто можно найти в инструкциях, информационных листках и т.д. (это не вопросы):

HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR PRONUNCIATION
WHAT TO DO IF FIRE BREAKS OUT

d) Инфинитив не употребляется непосредственно после предлога, в этом случае употребляют герундий:

We can depend on finding him there.

Герундий употребляется также в конструкциях типа ‘We consider meeting her foolish ', но если мы хотим вместо герундия использовать инфинитив, то предложение должно принять следующий вид:

We consider it foolish (of him) to meet her.

После многих глаголов можно употреблять в качестве дополнения инфинитив. Сравним:

I like cornflakes for breakfast. (noun object)
I like to read the paper at breakfast. (infinitive clause as object)

She wants some exercise.
She wants to dance.

Еще примеры:

It's beginning to rain.
I don't want to see you again.
She seems to be crying.
I expect to have finished by tomorrow evening.
The car needs to be cleaned.

К числу распространенных таких глаголов относятся:

afford, begin, fail, intend, prefer, seem, agree, care, forget, learn, prepare, start, appear, choose, go on, like, pretend, swear, arrange, consent, happen, love, propose, trouble, ask, continue, hate, manage, promise, try, attempt, dare, help, mean, refuse, want, (can't) bear, decide, hesitate, neglect, regret, wish, beg, expect, hope, offer, remember.

Некоторые из этих глаголов употребляются в конструкции object + infinitive (например: I want her to be happy) и несколько могут употребляться в конструкции verb + for + object +
infinitive (например: I arranged for her to have violin lessons).
После некоторых глаголов можно употреблять не только инфинитив, но и герундий (иногда с несколько разным смыслом) и после некоторых – только герундий (см. «герундиальные обороты».

OBJECT + ING

Инфинитив и герундий могут употребляться после глаголов FEEL, HEAR, NOTICE, SEE, и WATCH в конструкции verb+object+infinitive/participle, при этом инфинитив выражает законченное действие, а причастие – действие в процессе:


I saw that man break the window. (I saw the complete act)
I watched the fishermen hauling their boats up onto the shore. (I watched while the activity continued)

Did you hear a dog bark? (give one bark)
I heard that dog barking all night. (going on barking)

I didn't notice you raise your hand. (complete act)
I noticed several people leaving the room. (I noticed them while they were on their way out)

Это можно сравнить с употреблением present simple и present continuous для действий, происходящих в момент речи.

Инфинитив может употребляться в «косвенном императиве»:
Told someone to do something is an INDIRECT IMPERATIVE:

DIRECT IMPERATIVE: Go away.
INDIRECT IMPERATIVE: I told/ordered him to go away.

Еще примеры:

Don't go yet. I told him not to go yet.
Have a seat. I asked/invited him to have a seat.
Be careful. I advised/warned them to be careful.

● Некоторые глаголы (long, ask, prepare, provide, vote, wait, wish) могут употребляться в такой конструкции (инфинитив относится к будущему времени):

We're longing for you to come here again.

В качестве определенного шаблона можно запомнить предложение ‘I'm longing for you to come’.
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Функции инфинитива (2)

Сообщение Admin » 25 дек 2016, 17:16

ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВО

Инфинитив может употребляться в роли обстоятельства.

1) Выражая цель (одно действие должно последовать за другим):

He came to London to look for work.
I have come to apologise.
I sent Mrs Bacon a bunch of flowers to thank her for the party.
I sat down to rest. (NOT: I sat down for resting / for to rest.)
He went abroad to forget.
I'm going to Austria to learn German.
To switch on, press red button.

● Несколько более сложная конструкция получается добавлением so as или in order перед инфинитивом (чтобы избежать возможной двусмысленности из-за того, что инфинитив имеет и другие варианты использования):

Some people refuse/hesitate to say what they think.
Some speakers hesitate (so as) /=(in order) to choose the right word.

The lecturer stopped talking at last.
He stopped (so as)/=(in order) to talk to me after the lecture.

Our host left us, (so as)/=(in order) to pay the bill. (He paid it)
He invited us to a restaurant then left us to pay the bill. (We had to pay it)

Еще примеры:

He got up early in order to have time to pack.
I watched him in order to know more about him.
I moved to a new flat so as to be near my work.

In order to / so as to часто необходимо перед «отрицательными» инфинитивами:

I'm going to leave now, so as not to be late (неверно: I'm going to leave now, not to be late.)

Если речь идет о вовлечении в действие кого-либо, то можно использовать for + имя собственное/местоимение:

I left the door unlocked for Harriet to get in.

2) Выражая неожиданные последствия:

He went home to find his old friend George waiting for him.
I arrived home to find that the house had been burgled.
(в отличие от цели в ‘He went home to get his coat’)


С помощью only можно выразить негативное восприятие последствий:

He went home (only) to find his house in ruins.
At last we got to Amy's place, only to discover that she was away.
He spent four years studying, only to learn that there were no jobs.

Инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным обстоятельственным предложениям

а) цели (при условии, что подлежащее и время действия – общее в обеих частях):

He worked all night so that he could get the job done in time.
He worked all night so as to get the job done in time,

б) придаточное предложение результата:

His work was so good that it made him internationally famous.
His work was so good as to make him internationally famous.

He was in such bad health that he was obliged to resign.
He was in such bad health as to be obliged to resign.


To hear her talk, you'd think ...

Инфинитивы глаголов see и hear можно употреблять, чтобы выразить причину ошибочного представления о чем-либо. После такой конструкции обычно идет you'd think или похожее выражение:

To see them, you'd think they were married. But they only met yesterday.
To see him walk down the street, you'd never know he was blind.
To hear her talk, you'd think she was made of money.

ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ

We can use noun + infinitive to talk about obligation - things that people have
to do. Active and passive infinitives are often both possible.
Инфинитив может употребляться как определение главной части группы существительного (как в активном, так и пассивном залоге):

There's a lot of work to do / to be done.
There are six letters to post / to be posted.
Give me the names of the people to contact / to be contacted.
The people to interview / to be interviewed are in the next room.

Инфинитив в активном залоге употребляется, когда акцент делается на том, кто совершит действие:

I've got work to do. (не I’ve got work to be done)
They've sent lane a form to fill in.

Пассивный инфинитив употребляется, когда акцент на самом действии или предмете над которым совершится действие:

The carpets to be cleaned are in the garage. (не The carpets to clean ... )
His desk is covered with forms to be filled in.

После be в таких случаях обычно употребляется пассивный инфинитив:

These sheets are to be washed. (не These sheets are to wash.)
This form is to be filled in in ink. (не This farm is to fill in)
The cleaning is to be finished by midday. (не ...The cleaning is to finish…)

● Есть разница между nothing to do и nothing to be done:

I'm bored – there's nothing to do. (= There are no entertainments.)
There's nothing to be done – we'll have to buy a new one. (= There's no way of putting it right.)

Инфинитивный оборот фактически соответствует определительным предложениям:

The thing that you should do is what everyone else is doing.
The thing to do is what everyone else is doing.

The person (whom) you should ask is George Lamb.
The person to ask is George Lamb.

The place where you should go is Brown's.
The place to go is Brown's.

The time when you should leave is after they've served coffee.
The time to leave is after they've served coffee.

The way you should start it is to give it a push.
The way to start it is to give it a push.

The question of whether we should sell/=to sell is still undecided.
The question of whether we should sell/=to sell is still undecided.

WHY по такому шаблону не употребляется:

- I don't know why we should do that.
- The reason for doing it is perfectly clear.

Также инфинитивный оборот может заменять определительное предложение в таких случаях:

You need someone who can look after you.
You need someone to look after you.

Someone to look after you можно заменить на something to eat, somewhere to sleep и т.п., и похожие предложения можно составлять с anything to do, nowhere to go и так далее.

Еще примеры:

I've brought a book that I can read.
I've brought a book to read.

George is the man for whom we should vote.
George is the man to vote for.

He was the first man who flew across the Atlantic.
He was the first man to fly across the Atlantic.

Инфинитив в пассивном залоге:

There are several people who have to be consulted.
There are several people to be consulted.

There are still many obstacles that must be overcome.
There are still many obstacles to be overcome.

There is a lot of work that must be done first.
There is a lot of work to be done first.

Is he really a man who can be trusted?
Is he really a man to be trusted?

Похожие конструкции можно употреблять с инфинитивом в активном залоге, но пассивным значением:

There are several people to consult first.
There are still many obstacles to overcome.
There is a lot of work to do first.
Is he really a man to trust?

ВВОДНОЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ

Некоторые фиксированные инфинитивные обороты употребляются как вводные выражения:

To tell you the truth/ To be (quite) honest with you/ To speak frankly/ To cut a long story short I think you are wrong.
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Сообщение Admin » 25 дек 2016, 17:17

The subject of an infinitive clause

В ряде случаев подлежащее главного предложения и подлежащее инфинитива могут совпадать:

I hope to go
I don't know what to do

Но в некоторых случаях они могут быть и разными:

I would like you to go.
Tell me what to do.

В следующем предложении очевидно, что некоторые люди нуждаются в консультации:

There are several people to consult.

Кто будет их консультировать, можно дать понять с помощью оборота с for:

There are several people for me/us/you to consult.

В следующих двух предложениях в первом предполагается, что читать книгу буду я, а во втором – что собеседник:

I've brought a book to read.
Here is a book for you to read.

Еще примеры:

Ann will be happy to help you. (Ann will help.)
Ann will be happy for the children to help you. (The children will help.)

My idea was to learn Russian.
My idea was for her to learn Russian.

To ask Joe would be a big mistake.
For you to ask Joe would be a big mistake. (NOT You to ask Joe would be ... )

Ann will be happy for them to help you. (NOT ... for they to help you.)

Употребление for-phrase невозможно а таком предложении:

Stanley took three weeks to reach the coast.

Но его можно перефразировать:

It took three weeks (for Stanley) to reach the coast.

Еще пример:

To say such a thing is ridiculous.
For Roberts to say such a thing is nonsense.


Обязательно употребление for-phrase при таком преобразовании:

There is some disagreement between us. I think it is a pity.
I think it is a pity for there to be any disagreement between us.

Of-phrase употребляется после прилагательных (причем в обязательном порядке после good):

It is foolish (of him) to meet her again.
It was kind (of you) /good of you to write her that letter.

Оборот for + object + infinitive часто имеет такое же значение как that-clause:

It's important for the meeting to start on time.
It's important that the meeting should start on time.

Этот оборот используется после ряда прилагательных (например, anxious, eager, delighted, willing, reluctant), чтобы выразить желания и различные чувства о важности будущих событий:

She's anxious for us to see her work.
I'm eager for the party to be a success.
Robert says he'd be delighted for Mary to come and stay.

Часто употребляется предваряющее it:

It's impossible for the job to be finished in time.
Would it be easy for you to phone me tomorrow?
It's important for the meeting to start at eight.
It seems unnecessary for him to start work this week.
I consider it essential for the school to be properly heated.
Is it usual for foxes to come so close to the town?
I thought it strange for her to be out so late.
It's not good for the oil tank to be so close to the house.

К другим «популярным» таким прилагательным относятся vital, necessary,
pointless, unimportant, common, normal, unusual, rare, right, wrong:
(likely и probable с такими конструкциями не употребляется):

She's likely to arrive this evening. (NOT ‘It's likely for her to arrive this
evening’. )
It's probable that she'll be in a bad temper./ She'll probably be ... (NOT ‘It's
probable for her to be...’)

Такая же конструкция может употребляться после существительных с похожим смыслом: time, a good/ bad idea, plan, aim, need, request, mistake, shame.

It's time for everybody to go to bed.
It's a good idea for us to travel in separate cars.
There's a plan for Jack to spend a year in Japan.
Our aim is for students to learn as quickly as possible.
It was a big mistake for them not to keep John as manager.
It was a real shame for them not to win after all their work.

something for me to do

Something, anything, nothing и похожие слова часто употребляются с последующим оборотом for + object + infinitive:

Have you got something for me to do?
There's nothing for the cats to eat.
Is there anybody for Louise to play with in the village?
I must find somewhere for him to practise the piano.

after verbs: ask for ... to ...

For-structures обычно не употребляются после глаголов:

I need you to help me. (NOT I need for you to help me.)

Но это не относится к глаголам, с которыми употребление for ествественно (например, ask, hope, wait, look, pay, arrange):

Anne asked for the designs to be ready by Friday.
I can't wait for them to finish talking.
Can you arrange for the gold to be delivered on Monday? (NOT ...for the
gold being delivered.)

И еще несколько глаголов, с которыми может использоваться такая конструкция, включают, например, suit и take (time).

When will it suit you for us to call?
It took twenty minutes for the smoke to clear.

И, наконец, в разговорном американском диалекте можно употреблять for-structure с глаголами like, hate, mean, intend и некоторыми другими:

I would like for you to stay as long as you want.
She hates for people to feel sad.
Did you mean for John to mail those letters?

Часто for-structure употребляется после too и enough.

This is much too heavy for you to lift.
There are too many people here for me to talk to all of them.
Do you think it's warm enough for the snow to melt?
I explained enough for her to understand what was happening.

● For-structure может употребляться как подлежащее:

For us to fail now would be a disaster.
For her to lose the election would make me very happy.

Но в этих случаях естественнее употреблять предварительное it:

It would make me very happy for her to lose the election.

for there to be

There to be (что можно назвать инфинитивом оборота there is) может употребляться после for:

I'm anxious for there to be plenty of time for discussion.
It's important for there to be a fire escape at the back of the building.

that-clauses

Вместо for + object + infinitive может употребляться that-clause + should или subjunctive
(в основном в американском диалекте). That-clause звучит более формально, чем
for –structure:

It is important that there should be a fire escape.
I'm anxious that the party should be a success.
His idea is that we should travel in separate cars.
It is essential that the meeting start at eight.

● Стоит обратить внимание на выражения anywhere/nowhere to be seen/found:

He wasn't anywhere to be seen. (NOT. .. anywhere to see.)
Susan was nowhere to be found. (NOT ... nowhere to find.)

Пассивный инфинитив употребляется также, чтобы выразить оценочные суждения с такими глаголами как congratulate, encourage, avoid:

You are to be congratulated. (NOT ... to congratulate.)
This behaviour is to be encouraged.

Кроме «обычной» формы - (to) go, (to) work) и т.п. – инфинитив может иметь также продолженную, совершенную и пассивную формы.

progressive infinitive

Продолженная форма выражает соответственно действие в процессе его совершения на момент речи:

It's nice to be sitting here with you.
I noticed that he seemed to be smoking a lot.
This time tomorrow I'll be lying on the beach.
I don't want to be sitting here all day.
I don't want/expect you to be sitting here all day.

После want+object можно опускать to be:

I don't want you (to be) sitting here all day.

Продолженная форма инфинитива может употребляться и после прилагательных:

We are sorry to be leaving so soon.

Есть форма будущего продолженного:

Why's she so late? She can't still be working.

● После had better может употребляться инфинитив в продолженной форме:

We 'd better be going


perfect infinitive

Совершенный инфинитив имеет значение схожее с личными перфектными формами (и иногда с формами прошедшего времени):

It's nice to have finished work. (= It's nice that I have finished.)
I'm sorry not to have come on Thursday. (= ... that I didn't come ... )
I'm glad to have left school. (= I'm glad that I have left ... )
She was sorry to have missed Bill. (= ... that she had missed Bill.)
We hope to have finished the job by next Saturday. (= ... that we will have
finished ... )
You seem to have annoyed Anne yesterday. (= It seems that you annoyed
Anne yesterday.)
I am happy to have been George's friend.
I expect to have read this book.
I am sorry to have missed him.

This house is to let. ( = Someone wishes to let it)
You are not to blame for what happened. (==No one should blame you)
Nobody was to blame for the accident.

В разговорной речи может иногда употребляться «двойной» перфектный инфинитив:

I would have liked to have seen Harry's face.

Modals

После модальных глаголов could, might, ought, should, wuuld и needn't перфектный инфинитив выражает события, которые не совершились:

Did you see him fall? He could have killed himself. (He did not kill himself.)
You should have written - I was getting worried. (The person did not write.)
I would have gone to university if my parents had had more money. (The speaker did not go to university.)
She needn't have sent me flowers. (She did send flowers.)

Еще примеры:

I meant to have telephoned, but I forgot. (или I meant to telephone ... )
You should have told me you were coming.

He was to have been the new ambassador, but he fell ill.
I wish I'd been there - I would like to have seen Harry's face when Nan walked in.

Так же может выражаться неуверенность:

She could/should/ought to/may/will/must have arrived by now.
I may have left my umbrella at the restaurant.

passive infinitive: (to) be + past participle

Пассивный инфинитив обычно выражает тот же смысл, что и другие пассивные формы:

There's a lot of work to be done.
She ought to be told about it.
That window must be repaired before tonight.

Еще примеры:

Women like to be admired.
I want this to be done again.
He is not strong enough to be moved yet.
He is determined to be obeyed.
The boy was nowhere to be seen. ( =One couldn't see him anywhere)
You are to be congratulated. ( =One must congratulate you)
Jack's work leaves much to be desired. (leave much to be desired – фиксированное выражение со значением 'be very unsatisfactory')

Но только активные формы (хотя с пассивным значением) употребляются в таких случаях:

В некоторых случаях активный и пассивный инфинитив имеют схожее значение (особенно после существительных и глагола be):

There's a lot of work to do / to be done.

combinations

Употребляется также Perfect progressive infinitive и perfect passive infinitive:

I'd like to have been sitting there when she walked in.
They were lucky - they could have been killed.

Progressive passive infinitives возможен, но употребляется очень редко:

What would you like to be doing right now? - I'd like to be being massaged.

Progressive perfect passive infinitives (например, It must have been being built at the
time) употребляется чрезвычайно редко.

negative forms

Отрицательная форма образуется с помощью частницы not перед инфиниитвом:

Try not to be late. (нежелательно: try to not be late/ try to don't be late.)
You were silly not to have locked your car.
He's very busy. I'm afraid he can't be disturbed.
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