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7-8. Совершенные продолженные времена

Форма глагола в совершенном продолженном грамматическом времени (Perfect Continuous/Progressive tense) меняется следующим образом:

had been working → have/has been working → will have been working

Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive

Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive представляет собой «комбинацию» из продоложенного и совершенного грамматических времен и выражает действия, которые продлжались как-то время и с точки зрения говорящего логически связаны с настоящим. Может описываться действие, которое a) закончилось перед самым моментом речи, b) закончилось в момент речи (или сразу после него) или c) продолжается далее:

It has been raining, but it has stopped now;
I've been working for six hours and now I'll stop;
We've been learning this language for ten years (and are still learning it).

Несколько примеров употребления:

I don't feel like going out this evening. I've been working in the garden all day.
The children have been playing tennis. That's why they're so hot.
Please excuse my dirty clothes. I've been cleaning out the cellar.
Be careful! John has been painting the door.
We have been building a garage on to the house.
Hi! What have you been doing with yourself? - I've been trying to write a
novel.
That kid has been watching TV non-stop since breakfast.
Have you been working in the garden all day? You look exhausted.
She's been writing the book since she was in her twenties and at last it's finished.
You look hot. - Yes, I've been running.
Sorry I'm late. Have you been waiting long?
I must just go and wash. I've been gardening.

Во всех примерах говорящий выражает связь между длительным действием и настоящим моментом времени.

Это грамматическое время может выражать и «серийные» действия:

People have been phoning me all day.
I've been waking up in the night a lot. I think I'll see the doctor.

● Present perfect progressive часто употребляется с обстоятельствами, выражающими период времени, включающий и настоящий момент (recently, lately, this week, since… , for… и т.п.):

The firm has been losing money recently/lately.
John's been walking in Scotland all this week.
I've been doing a new job since January.
It's been raining for the last three days.

● Present Perfect Continuous (как и Present Perfect) не употребляется с обстоятельствами, выражающими прошедшие периоды времени (это грамматически настоящее время). В таких случаях можно употреблять, например, Past Continuous:

You look tired. - Yes. I was cycling from midday until five o'clock.
(неправильно: ‘I've been cycling from midday until five o'clock ’.)

● Present Perfect Continuous, как правило, не употребляется с глаголами состояния (это грамматически продолженное время). В таких случаях лучше употреблять Present Perfect:

Have you known each other long? (неправильно: ‘ Have you been knowing... ’)
I haven't liked ice cream since I ate too much and was sick (неправильно: ‘ I haven't been liking... ’)
John's been ill all week (неправильно: ‘John's been being ill ... ’)
She's had a cold since Monday (неправильно: ‘She's been having a cold ... ’)
I've only known her for two days (неправильно: ‘I've only been knowing her ...’ )

Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive

При употреблении Past Perfect Continuous происходит фактически «перенос» Present Perfect Continuous в прошлое:

At that time we had been living in the caravan for about six months.
When I found Mary, I could see that she had been crying.
I went to the doctor because I had been sleeping badly.

Описываемое действие могло a) закончиться к какому-то моменту в прошлом b) закончиться в этот момент речи (или сразу после него) или c) продолжаться далее:

We'd been driving for about an hour when the engine suddenly stopped.
When I last saw John, he'd been running and was out of breath.
She felt terrible during the interview because she had been suffering from flu since the previous day.

В разговорной речи это грамматическое время употребляется достаточно редко.

● Past Perfect Continuous употребляется в косвенной речи:

‘It has been raining.’ → I told you it had been raining.
‘I've been driving for three hours and I'm tired.' → I told you I had been driving for three hours and was tired.

Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive

Will + инфинитив в продолженно-совершенной форме употребляется, чтобы выразить действие, которое к какому-то моменту в будущем будет уже совершаться достаточно длительное время (то есть, фактически «перенос» Present Perfect Continuous в будущее):

By the end of this month, we shall have been learning this language for ten years.
When George gets his degree, he will have been studying at Oxford for four years.
On Saturday, we will have been living in this house for a year.
Next year I will have been working in the company for 30 years.
I'll have been teaching for twenty years this summer.

Это грамматическое время употребляется очень редко, но не потому, что в нем есть что-то необычное, а просто редко приходится описывать подобные ситуации.